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Conor M. Bolger, Jan Kocbach, Ann Magdalen Hegge and Øyvind Sandbakk

Purpose:

To compare the speed and heart-rate profiles during international skating and classical competitions in male and female world-class cross-country skiers.

Methods:

Four male and 5 female skiers performed individual time trials of 15 km (men) and 10 km (women) in the skating and classical techniques on 2 consecutive days. Races were performed on the same 5-km course. The course was mapped with GPS and a barometer to provide a valid course and elevation profile. Time, speed, and heart rate were determined for uphill, flat, and downhill terrains throughout the entire competition by wearing a GPS and a heart-rate monitor.

Results:

Times in uphill, flat, and downhill terrain were ~55%, 15–20%, and 25–30%, respectively, of the total race time for both techniques and genders. The average speed differences between skating and classical skiing were 9% and 11% for men and women, respectively, and these values were 12% and 15% for uphill, 8% and 13% for flat (all P < .05), and 2% and 1% for downhill terrain. The average speeds for men were 9% and 11% faster than for women in skating and classical, respectively, with corresponding numbers of 11% and 14% for uphill, 6% and 11% for flat, and 4% and 5% for downhill terrain (all P < .05). Heart-rate profiles were relatively independent of technique and gender.

Conclusions:

The greatest performance differences between the skating and classical techniques and between the 2 genders were found on uphill terrain. Therefore, these speed differences could not be explained by variations in exercise intensity.

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Jocelyn K. Mara, Kevin G. Thompson and Kate L. Pumpa

Purpose:

To investigate the physical and physiological response to different formats of various-sided games.

Methods:

Eighteen elite women’s soccer players wore 15-Hz global positioning system devices and heart-rate (HR) monitors during various-sided games (small, 4 vs 4 and 5 vs 5; medium, 6 vs 6 and 7 vs 7; large, 8 vs 8 and 9 vs 9).

Results:

Players covered more relative sprinting distance during large-sided games than in small-sided (P < .001, d = 0.69) and medium-sided (P < .001, d = 0.54) games. In addition, a greater proportion of total acceleration efforts that had a commencement velocity <1 m/s were observed in small-sided games (44.7% ± 5.5%) than in large-sided games (36.7% ± 10.6%) (P = .018, d = 0.94). This was accompanied by a greater proportion of acceleration efforts with a final velocity equivalent to the sprint threshold in large-sided games (15.4% ± 7.7%) than in small-sided games (5.2% ± 2.5%) (P < .001, d = 1.78). The proportion of time spent in HR zone 4 (>85% maximum HR) was greater during small-sided games (69.8% ± 2.5%) than in medium- (62.1% ± 2.8%, d = 2.90) and large-sided games (54.9% ± 3.1%) (P < .001, d = 5.29).

Conclusions:

The results from this study demonstrate that coaches can use small-sided games as an aerobic conditioning stimulus and to develop players’ explosiveness and repeat-sprint ability over short durations. Large-sided games can be used to maintain aerobic capacity and develop maximum speed over longer distances.

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and Technical Variability in the English Premier League Michael D. Bush * David T. Archer * Robert Hogg * Paul S. Bradley * 10 2015 10 10 7 7 865 865 872 872 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0484 Speed and Heart-Rate Profiles in Skating and Classical Cross-Country-Skiing Competitions Conor M. Bolger

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Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Harri Luchsinger, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

.1080/14763140408522832 4. Bolger CM , Kocbach J , Hegge AM , Sandbakk Ø . Speed and heart-rate profiles in skating and classical cross-country skiing competitions . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015 ; 10 ( 7 ): 873 – 880 . PubMed ID: 25671845 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 25671845 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 5

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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

31822a5440 21804420 2. Nightingale S , Douglas A . Ice hockey . In: Turner A , ed. Routledge Handbook of Strength and Conditioning . New York, NY : Routledge International ; 2018 : 157 – 177 . 10.4324/9781315542393-11 3. Jackson J , Gervais P . Movement characteristics and heart rate

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Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling

RG , Bachl N , Williams C . Longitudinal monitoring of power output and heart rate profiles in elite cyclists . J Sports Sci . 2011 ; 29 ( 8 ): 831 – 840 . PubMed ID: 21500082 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.561869 21500082 10.1080/02640414.2011.561869 27. Lambert MI , Borresen J . Measuring

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Mònica Solana-Tramunt, Jose Morales, Bernat Buscà, Marina Carbonell and Lara Rodríguez-Zamora

, minimum, and range values during performance; HR post1 , HR post3 , and HR post5 , heart rate after first, third, and fifth minutes during recovery; T, training exercises; TS, training session; TT, technical team routine. a Expressed as % of HR peak . The data are grouped per subject. Figure 2 —Heart-rate

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

. Bolger CM , Kocbach J , Hegge AM , Sandbakk O . Speed and heart-rate profiles in skating and classical cross-country-skiing competitions . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015 ; 10 ( 7 ): 873 – 880 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 25671845 9. Cholewa J , Gerasimuk D

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Erik Trøen, Bjarne Rud, Øyvind Karlsson, Camilla Høivik Carlsen, Matthias Gilgien, Gøran Paulsen, Ola Kristoffer Tosterud and Thomas Losnegard

Ø . Speed and heart-rate profiles in skating and classical cross-country skiing competitions . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2015 ; 10 ( 7 ): 873 – 880 . PubMed ID: 25671845 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 25671845 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0335 28. Marsland F , Lyons K , Anson J , Waddington G

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

: applications and limitations . Sports Med . 2003 ; 33 ( 7 ): 517 – 538 . PubMed ID: 12762827 doi:10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004 10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004 12762827 26. Nimmerichter A , Eston RG , Bachl N , Williams C . Longitudinal monitoring of power output and heart rate profiles in