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Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann, and Tanja Legenbauer

classified as lightweight (LWR) or heavyweight rowers (HWR). Whereas LWR classes clearly meet the criteria for weight sensitive sports, HWR are not subject to formal weight regulations. In rowing, higher body heights go along with higher leverages and lower body weights go along with a reduction of the

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Suzanne Nelson Steen, Kirsten Mayer, Kelly D. Brownell, and Thomas A. Wadden

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of dietary intake in 16 female heavyweight rowers during the sprint racing phase of the season. Caloric intake for the rowers was 2,633 kcal/day, lower than expected given the training regimen of these athletes. On average, rowers consumed below-optimal levels of carbohydrate. Protein intake was satisfactory but fat intake was higher than recommended. For the majority of rowers, micronutrient intake met the RDA. However, calcium, zinc, B6, and B12 fell short of meeting two-thirds of the RDA for a significant percentage of rowers. The preevent meal consumed both 15 hr and 2 hr before the event provided less carbohydrate and fluid but more fat than desirable. Female heavyweight rowers would benefit from nutritional counseling that provides strategies for increasing complex carbohydrates, calcium, zinc, B6, and Bl2 while reducing dietary fat. Adequate fluid intake is also essential.

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Gary J. Slater, Anthony J. Rice, David Jenkins, Jason Gulbin, and Allan G. Hahn

To strengthen the depth of lightweight rowing talent, we sought to identify experienced heavyweight rowers who possessed physique traits that predisposed them to excellence as a lightweight. Identified athletes (n = 3) were monitored over 16 wk. Variables measured included performance, anthropometric indices, and selected biochemical and metabolic parameters. All athletes decreased their body mass (range 2.0 to 8.0 kg), with muscle mass accounting for a large proportion of this (31.7 to 84.6%). Two athletes were able to maintain their performance despite reductions in body mass. However, performance was compromised for the athlete who experienced the greatest weight loss. In summary, smaller heavyweight rowers can successfully make the transition into the lightweight category, being nationally competitive in their first season as a lightweight.

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Ornella Nzindukiyimana and Kevin B. Wamsley

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind

Professional and amateur MMA athletes aged 18 years and older (strawweight to heavyweight categories) were recruited from MMA gyms, events, competitions, and websites. Participants were categorized by the level at which they competed at the time of completing the questionnaire. Professional-level athletes

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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular, and Uros Marusic

their boxing practice; and investigators did not encourage boxers to hydrate. Finally, in agreement with the previous studies, 23 athletes were assigned into 2 groups: lightweight (L WB , from flyweight to welterweight, n = 11) and heavyweight (H WB , from middleweight to superheavyweight, n = 12

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Pavle Mikulic

Purpose:

To examine variations in physical, physiological, and performance parameters over an annual training cycle in a world champion rowing crew.

Methods:

Four world-class rowers, all of them members of the men’s heavyweight quadruple sculls squad who are current world rowing champions, were assessed 3 times at regular 4-mo intervals during the 2011 season (November 2010, March 2011, and July 2011). Physical assessments included stature, body mass, body composition, whereas physiological and performance assessments obtained during an incremental rowing ergometer test to exhaustion included maximum oxygen uptake and anaerobic gas-exchange threshold with corresponding power output values.

Results:

Body mass (∼95 kg) and body composition (∼12% body fat) remained stable over the annual training cycle. Power output at anaerobic gas-exchange threshold increased +16% from November to July, whereas the corresponding oxygen uptake, expressed as a percentage of maximum oxygen uptake, increased from 83% to 90%. Maximum oxygen uptake decreased from 6.68 L/min in November to 6.10 L/min in March before rising to 6.51 L/min in July. The corresponding power output increased steadily from 450 W to 481 W.

Conclusion:

Seasonal variation in body mass and body composition of 4 examined world-class rowers was minimal. Oxygen uptake and power output corresponding to anaerobic threshold continuously increased from off-season to peak competition season. Seasonal variation in maximum oxygen uptake reached ∼10%; however, it remained above 6 L/min, that is, the value consistently observed in top caliber heavyweight rowers regardless of the time of the assessment.

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Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

We examined the relationship between the regain of body mass (BM) after weigh-in and success in real-life judo competition. Eighty-six (36 females, 50 males) senior judoka volunteered for this observational study of an international judo competition. Subjects were weighed at the official weigh-in and one hour before their first competition fight (15–20 hr later). Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between medal winners and nonmedalists, winners and losers of each fight, males and females and across weight divisions. Heavyweights were excluded from analysis. Prefight BM was greater than BM at official weigh-in for both males and females, with % BM gains of 2.3 ± 2.0 (p ≤ .0001; ES= 1.59; CI95% [1.63, 2.98]) and 3.1 ± 2.2 (p ≤ .0001; ES = 2.03; CI95% [2.30, 3.89]), respectively. No significant differences were found between weight divisions for post weigh-in BM regain. Differences in post weigh-in BM regain were significantly higher in medal winners than nonmedalists for males and females combined (1.4 ± 0.4% BM; p = .0026; ES= 0.69; CI95% [0.05, 2.34]) and for males alone (1.5 ± 0.6% BM; p = .017; ES= 0.74; CI95% [0.02, 2.64]), but not for females (1.2 ± 0.7% BM; p = .096; ES = 0.58; CI95% [-0.02, 2.31]). Differences in BM regain after weigh-in between winners and losers were significant across all fights (0.9 ± 0.3% BM; p = .0021; ES= 0.43; CI95% [0.31, 1.41]) but not for first round fights (0.8 ± 0.5% BM; p = .1386, ES = 0.38; CI95% [-0.26, 1.86]). Winners showed a greater regain in BM post weigh-in than losers. This may reflect the greater magnitude of the BM loss needed to achieve weigh-in targets which also relates to the experience level of successful athletes.

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Maamer Slimani, Helmi Chaabene, Bianca Miarka, and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

To determine the performance aspects (time–motion and technical-tactical analysis) of top-level low-kick kickboxers according to gender, weight category, combat round, and match outcome.

Methods:

Seventy-two kickboxers (44 male, 28 female) were studied. Thirty-six bouts (male = 61, female = 41 rounds) were analyzed using a time–motion system. Time structure was classified into 3 phases: preparatory-activity time (PT), fighting time (FT), and stoppage time (ST).

Results:

Referee decisions caused an overall effort:pause ratio (E:P) of ~1:1.5, with a significant difference between weight categories (light and middleweights = 1:1.5, heavyweight = 1:1). This ratio was ~1:6 when high-intensity actions–to-pause activities were considered. Significant differences were also observed between rounds (all P < .001), with 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-round E:Ps of 1:1, 1:1.5, and ~1:2, respectively. The relative times of FT and PT, total attacking actions, upper-limb actions, number of technical actions performed on the head, and the number of high-intensity actions were higher in males than females (all P = .05). Males performed more jab-cross actions and fewer low kicks than females (P < .001). Males used upper-limb (63.4%) more than lower-limb techniques (36.6%), targeting the head (56.9%) more than the body/leg (43.1%), with no significant difference from females (P > .05). E:P was similar between winners and losers. However, the numbers of technical actions performed on the head, counterattack actions, jab-cross technique, and total punches were higher in winners than losers (all P < .05).

Conclusions:

Training programs need to be adapted to the specific requirements of kickboxers’ weight categories and gender to develop the technical-tactical abilities that improve athletes’ chances of winning.