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American Tackle Football, Brain Trauma, and the Ethical Implications of Cultural Coercion

Adam Berg

person’s ‘own good’” (p. 111). At the same time, though, I accept the findings of historians and sociologists. Consequently, I treat as legitimate the notion that cultural hegemony—especially hegemonic masculinity—shapes subjectivity. When I refer to hegemony, I mean socially constructed elements of

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“Women Are Cancer, You Shouldn’t Be Working in Sport”: Sport Psychologists’ Lived Experiences of Sexism in Sport

Aura Goldman and Misia Gervis

is taken. However, to understand the complexity of the gendered landscape of sport, it is important to consider acts of sexism and hegemonic masculinity. Acts of sexism have been categorized in the literature in two different ways: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism ( Glick, 2013 ). These are

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A Case Study on Message-Board and Media Framing of Gay Male Athletes on a Politically Liberal Web Site

Edward M. Kian

In 2013–14, Jason Collins and Michael Sam became the first 2 athletes from the 4 most popular professional leagues in the United States to publicly come out as gay during their playing careers. U.S. men’s pro team sports have historically been arenas where hegemonic masculinity flourishes and open homosexuality is nearly nonexistent. However, these athletes came out during a period when sexual minorities had won numerous civil rights and were gaining acceptance by a majority of Americans, particularly those who self-identify as politically liberal. A textual analysis examined framing of Collins’s and Sam’s coming out in articles published on the liberal political Web site Focus was placed on how these athletes, homosexuality, and masculinity were framed in the corresponding message-board comments posted in response to these articles. Five primary themes emerged from the data, showing that acceptable forms of masculinities and homosexuality in sport remain contested terrains, even on liberal message boards.

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The Sport/War Metaphor: Hegemonic Masculinity, the Persian Gulf War, and the New World Order

Sue Curry Jansen and Don Sabo

Sport/war metaphors during the Persian Gulf War were crucial rhetorical resources for mobilizing the patriarchal values that construct, mediate, and maintain hegemonic forms of masculinity. Theory is grounded in an analysis of the language used during coverage of the war in electronic and print news media, as well as discourse in the sport industry and sport media. Various usages of the sport/war metaphor are discussed. It is argued that sport/war metaphors reflected and reinforced the multiple systems of domination that rationalized the war and strengthened the ideological hegemony of white Western male elites.

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Hegemonic Masculinity and the Institutionalized Bias Toward Women in Men’s Collegiate Basketball: What Do Men Think?

Nefertiti A. Walker and Melanie L. Sartore-Baldwin

Women coaching in men’s college basketball are anomalies. Whereas women occupy 58.3% of the head coaching positions for women’s college basketball teams, they possess a mere 0.01% of men’s college basketball head coaching positions (Zgonc, 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate men’s basketball coaches’ perceptions and overall attitude toward women in the institution of men’s college basketball and within the male-dominated organizational culture of sport. In doing so, the authors provide insight of core participants (i.e., NCAA Division I men’s basketball coaches) who reinforce hypermasculine institutional norms to form impermeable cognitive institutions. Building on previous research, eight men’s basketball coaches were sampled using semistructured interviewing methods. Results suggested that men’s college basketball is hypermasculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change. Given these findings, the authors propose sport managers should consider organizational culture and individual agency when developing policies that are sensitive to gender inequality and promote inclusion of underrepresented groups.

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Exploring NCAA Division I Athletic Administrator Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Directors’ Achievements: A Photo Elicitation Study

Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

athletic administrator perceptions regarding the professional accomplishments of male and female athletic directors. We used the concept of hegemonic masculinity as an analytical lens to specifically understand how gender might influence athletic administrator perceptions of male and female athletic

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Activism in Women’s Sports Blogs: Fandom and Feminist Potential

Dunja Antunovic and Marie Hardin

The emergence of social media has provided a space for discourse and activism about sports that traditional media outlets tend to ignore. Using a feminist theoretical lens, a textual analysis of selected blogs on the Women Talk Sports blog network was conducted to determine how fandom and advocacy for women’s sports were expressed in blog posts. The analysis indicated that bloggers enhance the visibility of women’s sports, but their engagement with social issues varies. Some bloggers may reproduce hegemonic norms around sports and gendered sporting bodies, while others may offer a more critical, decidedly feminist view and challenge dominant ideologies. While the blogosphere, and particularly networks such as Women Talk Sports, can serve as a venue for activism around women’s sports and the representation of athletic bodies, its potential to do so may be unmet without a more critical perspective by participants.

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Exploring Self-Compassion and Versions of Masculinity in Men Athletes

Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich, and Leah J. Ferguson

emotions) are even more likely to reject a construct like self-compassion ( Mosewich, Ferguson, McHugh, & Kowalski, 2019 ), which involves treating oneself with kindness in the face of failure. In contrast to hegemonic masculinity, an alternative version of masculinity (i.e., inclusive masculinity) is

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“I Do Worry That Football Will Become Over-Feminized”: Ambiguities in Fan Reflections on the Gender Order in Men’s Professional Football in the United Kingdom

Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope, and John Williams

results, we have drawn on Connell’s ( 1987 ) theory of hegemonic masculinity to help explain the social construction of gendered power relations and the position of women in the gender order of men’s professional football in the United Kingdom. Given the gendered history of men’s professional football, we

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Framing of Sport Coverage Based on the Sex of Sports Writers: Female Journalists Counter the Traditional Gendering of Media Coverage

Edward M. Kian and Marie Hardin

This study examined effects of the sex of sports writers on the framing of athletes in print-media coverage of intercollegiate men’s and women’s basketball tournaments. The number of articles by female and male authors and the frames used were analyzed. Descriptors of players, coaches, and both tournaments in articles from CBS SportsLine, ESPN Internet, The New York Times, and USA Today were coded with the authors’ names initially hidden. Results showed that female journalists were more apt to cover women’s basketball, and men predominantly wrote about men’s basketball. The sex of writers also influenced the ways female and male athletes were presented. Male writers were more likely to reinforce gender stereotypes by praising the athleticism of male athletes. In contrast, female writers more often framed female athletes for their athletic prowess. The results suggest that female sports writers can make some difference in framing, but institutional structures minimize their impact.