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Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker

ideology underlies discourse surrounding the employment roles of NFL cheerleaders, contributing to the perpetuation of hegemonic gender ideology in sport (e.g.,  Fink, 2008 ). This critical discourse analysis (CDA) takes a feminist perspective, and as such, we consider how gender relations, power, and

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Nefertiti A. Walker, Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Marvin Washington, Lauren C. Hindman, and Jeffrey MacCharles

undertaking an unpaid internship seems to be embedded into the fabric of the sport industry. Deeply entrenched in sport industry hegemony is the norm that young people (i.e., students and recent graduates) must work multiple unpaid internships to have a better chance at being considered for full-time paid

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Bridget L. Gee and Sarah I. Leberman

This qualitative exploratory case study redresses the deficit of sports media research in France by undertaking a study of those responsible for the production of sports media content. The central question was, What role do sports media producers play in perpetuating dominant ideologies in sport? Participants were experienced male and female sports content decision makers from major French national television and print media. Data were collected through 9 individual semistructured interviews. The findings highlight how sports are selected for coverage, why women’s sport receives less coverage, and who is responsible. There is an indication that women’s sport is subject to much harsher editorial selection criteria than men’s. The similarities and differences between France and other countries are also discussed. Conclusions were drawn on what role the makers of sports media content have in reproducing this hegemonic masculinity so inherent in sports coverage.

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Lea Ann “Beez” Schell and Stephanie Rodriguez

Italian Socialist Antonio Gramsci introduced the concept of hegemony in the early 1900s to describe how the capitalist elite maintain their dominant status, through a subtle imposition of ideology upon the masses. According to Gramsci, such a ruling class must generate a consensus of acceptance for dominant ideology. This consensus is created not by coercion, but through the influence of intellectuals and civic institutions. Gramsci’s concept may be applied to help explain the present status of American women in sport, by demonstrating the influence of masculinist hegemony over this institution. Women continue to face numerous barriers imposed by male hegemonic ideology, despite their recent attempts to gain equality and respect in sport. As well, some feminists may feel an ethical dilemma in their provision of support for women’s equality within an institution thought to be complicit with male hegemony. The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the difficulties faced by our sporting sisters and to identify proactive strategies that may work toward the elimination of gender-based economic, social, and political stratification in sport.

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David Whitson

This paper seeks to analyze the contribution of sport to a common sense acceptance of the performance principle, and its associated discipline and accountability, as natural and indeed valuable features of social life. It will be our purpose, furthermore, to argue that a conceptual framework incorporating the ideas of “hegemony”, “structure of feeling”, and “dominant, residual, and emergent” cultures, offers significant analytical advantages over frameworks based on more straightforward notions of socialization and social control.

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William J. Morgan

I take up Ingham’s and Beamish’s three main criticisms of my previous critique of hegemony theory—that it is “distorted” because it ignores that hegemony both sets limits and opens up possibilities, that it overlooks Williams’ point that hegemony “is never total or exclusive”, and that it falsely claims that Williams opted for an all-inclusive, material base to replace the classical Marxist base superstructure paradigm—and argue that they all miss the mark. I thus conclude by reaffirming my major thesis that hegemony sport theory is best regarded as a theory of social containment rather than social transformation because it has no intelligible way of explaining major shifts of dominance, that is, of accounting for the transference of dominance from one group to another.

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Sue Curry Jansen and Don Sabo

Sport/war metaphors during the Persian Gulf War were crucial rhetorical resources for mobilizing the patriarchal values that construct, mediate, and maintain hegemonic forms of masculinity. Theory is grounded in an analysis of the language used during coverage of the war in electronic and print news media, as well as discourse in the sport industry and sport media. Various usages of the sport/war metaphor are discussed. It is argued that sport/war metaphors reflected and reinforced the multiple systems of domination that rationalized the war and strengthened the ideological hegemony of white Western male elites.

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William J. Morgan

I reexamine some of the contentious issues that frame the debate between MacAloon, who champions an American anthropological approach to the study of sport, and Hargreaves and Tomlinson, who favor a British cultural studies approach to the study of sport. Specifically, I take up Hargreaves and Tomlinson’s central charge that MacAloon’s critical account of British cultural studies, especially its hegemonist wing, is to be dismissed as a one-sided, “staggering misrepresentation.” I argue that while MacAloon misinterprets certain features of this hegemonist writing on sport, his main criticisms of British hegemony sport theory are telling ones that repay closer study.

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Edward M. Kian, John Vincent, and Michael Mondello

This study examined print-media portrayals of women’s and men’s basketball teams, players, and coaches during the 2006 NCAA Division I tournaments. Drawing principally from Gramsci’s hegemony theory and Connell’s theory of gender power relations, we analyzed article narratives published over a 26-day period during spring 2006 in four major media outlets: newspapers, The New York Times and USA Today, and online sport publications, ESPN Internet and CBS SportsLine. A total of 508 articles were coded and analyzed for dominant themes. Six primary themes emerged from the data. Although the data revealed shifts in media representations of gender relations, overall these themes mostly supported Connell’s theory about the gender order.

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Kelly Poniatowski

The purpose of the study was to focus on how hegemonic nationality, as well as hegemonic masculinity and femininity are expressed in the media commentaries about women’s sport. This study focused specifically on Olympic hockey broadcasts on NBC’s cable affiliates employing freelance journalists during the 2006 Olympics. Textual analyses of five U.S. and Canadian women’s games were conducted. Two hockey commentators of the Olympic Games were also interviewed. Results indicate that, in relationship to men, the women’s game is viewed as less physical. In regards to nationality, the U.S. women are viewed as legitimate athletes for embracing hockey and not traditional feminine sports such as figure skating. Canadian women are viewed as legitimate for initially having participated in female versions of hockey such as ringette before playing hockey. The U.S. women are described as having strength and power as well as being fit and still feminine, while their Canadian counterparts are mostly described by physical size.