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Carl G. Mattacola, Carolina Quintana, Jed Crots, Kimberly I. Tumlin and Stephanie Bonin

a horse to wear a properly secured, certified helmet. 7 However, most tracks fall under state or track-specific rules with less stringent helmet requirements that allow jockeys to wear noncertified helmets at those facilities. Equestrian helmets have 3 primary components: a rigid outer shell, an

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Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt

Background:

This paper analyzes changes in the frequency of cycling to school and helmet wearing after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law, and attempts to identify factors associated with the acceptance of helmet use.

Methods:

A mixed-method study was designed with a 7-month follow-up period (April 2014 to November 2014). The initial sample included 262 students (aged 12 to 16 years) from Valencia, Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire and 2 focus-group interviews were conducted.

Results:

No significant changes in cyclingto-school behavior were found during the study period. Cycle helmet use improved, especially among boys, those who used their own bike, and among adolescents who lived within 2 km of school (P < .05 in all cases). The most common reasons given for not using a helmet were social factors. Peer-group pressure had a negative influence on helmet use among adolescents. Participants also indicated that helmet use is inconvenient, in particular among students who used the public bicycle-sharing program.

Conclusions:

The implementation of the helmet-use law did not have a negative impact on the frequency of cycling to school. Our findings provide an empirical basis for designing educational interventions and programs to increase helmet use among adolescents.

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Daniel C. Martinez, Thomas G. Bowman and Richard J. Boergers

Facemask removal (FMR) is crucial for immediate treatment of helmeted athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of practice on the time required for lacrosse helmet FMR. Participants removed the facemasks of two helmet models (Cascade CPXR and Warrior Trojan) four times over four weeks with either a cordless screwdriver or pruner. We found a significant interaction for removal tool and time (p < .001). Participants became faster at FMR across the 4 weeks of data collection. We recommend three consecutive weeks of practice to improve FMR speed, though depending on FMR tool, an individual could benefit from additional sessions.

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Patricia M. Kelshaw, Trenton E. Gould, Mark Jesunathadas, Nelson Cortes, Amanda Caswell, Elizabeth D. Edwards and Shane V. Caswell

wear hard-shell helmets, shoulder pads, gloves, and mouth guards for protection. 7 By contrast, girls’ lacrosse does not permit body or stick contact and requires field players to wear only a mouth guard and eyewear for protection. 8 Girls’ lacrosse rules prohibit players’ lacrosse sticks from

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Jean-Philippe Dionne, Ismail El Maach, Ahmed Shalabi and Aris Makris

The objective of the present paper is to investigate the overall impact performance of various riot helmets in a comparative study. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ-0104.02) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA-Z611-02) standards regulate the use of riot helmets in North America. Both sets of standards have a number of requirements for impact performance. Impact tests carried out with the use of a drop tower apparatus compliant with NIJ test protocols demonstrated large differences in impact attenuation level among the helmets from six manufacturers in terms of frontal and lateral impacts to the shell, and face-shield deflection. For instance, the impact energy yielding a head form acceleration of 300 g’s was measured for each helmet for frontal impacts on the helmet shell. Values ranging from 69 J up to 171 J were obtained. The energy levels of typical crowd-control threats, e.g., baton blows and projectiles, were quantified and compared with the impact energy values used in the standards. It is observed that the NIJ face-shield deflection requirement is low as compared to actual riot threats, whereas the CSA requirements are more in line with these threats. A novel method was devised to objectively assign a global impact performance score to each helmet. This method takes into account the frontal and lateral impacts to the shell as well as the face-shield deflection tests. It is based on the directional origin of the threat and the geometry of the helmets (frontal percentage area of the visor). From these global performance scores, it is possible to obtain a ranking of the various riot helmets used in the present comparative study. Based on the analysis of the global scores, it was found that appropriate protection of the face (through an impact resistant visor) is the key feature for a helmet that will be used in riot environments.

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Vincent Chabroux, Caroline Barelle and Daniel Favier

The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist’s upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

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Cynthia J. Wright, Nico G. Silva, Erik E. Swartz and Brent L. Arnold

possible airway obstruction, amongst other pathologies. 1 , 2 In the event of injury, protective equipment (e.g., helmet, shoulder pads) can pose a barrier to effective emergency care. 3 – 5 Thus, due to the risks of the sport and potential for equipment to inhibit care, athletic trainers responsible for

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Douglas M. Kleiner

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Erik E. Swartz

Column-editor : Michael G. Dolan

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Charles P. Gallmeier