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Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson

significantly greater percentage of at-risk athletes (89%) versus non-athletes (22%) met criteria for an eating disorder in the follow-up diagnostic interview, suggesting athletes may be more likely to underreport symptoms. Although this study did not examine rates of help-seeking intentions, it can be

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher, and Gavin Breslin

with such potentially harmful AAS use and their associated risks, it is necessary to understand the factors underpinning professional help-seeking behaviors among AAS users. The number of AAS users registered with advice services in the United Kingdom (UK) has increased in recent years, but the

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Susan B. Nye

Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content exists (Newman & Schwager, 1995; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). An interpretive qualitative research design utilizing a case study approach was used to explore middle school students’ help-seeking instances during their physical education classes. Ten students (6 females and 4 males) were selected from two middle schools. The students’ participated in two semistructured interviews regarding their help-seeking behaviors. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Results indicated students would seek help to clarify or enhance understanding of an activity or to get a good grade and cited reluctance to seek help owing to their desire for independent mastery or the perceived risk of embarrassment in front of their peers.

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

explored. Thus, there is a need to better understand the psychological resilience of student-athletes and the role it plays in protecting these athletes from mental ill-health. Alongside resilience, a willingness and ability to engage in help-seeking is an important self-care behavior which can help to

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Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir

understand which athletes may be in an increased risk for not seeking help when symptoms emerge. Help-seeking can be defined as a behavior where an individual expresses a need for help by approaching informal (e.g., friends and family) or formal (e.g., psychologist) sources for help ( Rickwood, Deane, Wilson

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Rachel S. Wahto, Joshua K. Swift, and Jason L. Whipple

The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between public stigma, self-stigma, and mental health help-seeking attitudes in college studentathletes, and (b) test whether referral source would have an impact on student-athletes’ willingness to seek mental health help. Participating college student-athletes (n = 43) completed an online survey including measures of stigma (public and self), attitudes, and willingness to seek mental health help. The results indicated that public stigma and self-stigma predicted a significant proportion of variance in attitudes (66%) above and beyond gender and treatment-use history. In addition, student-athletes were more willing to seek help when referred by a family member compared with a coach (d = 0.89), a teammate (d = 1.05), or oneself (d = 1.28). The results have important implications for helping student-athletes seek mental health help when there is a need.

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Siobhain McArdle and Phil Moore

The aim of this pilot study was to explore disordered eating (DE) literacy in male and female athletes and to examine whether any gender differences were present. A related aim was to examine the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between indices of DE literacy and attitudes toward help-seeking for DE. A nonclinical sample of 133 (37% male) athletes from a variety of sports and competitive levels were recruited to complete an online questionnaire addressing a range of topics linked to DE literacy. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant gender differences on indicators of DE literacy. Findings from the survey revealed a number of beliefs conducive to low or inappropriate help-seeking for DE. The results highlight the importance of exploring DE literacy in athletes to develop more targeted interventions for this specific population.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Nicole T. Gabana, Brandon T. Cooper, and Martin A. Swanbrow Becker

( Gulliver, Griffiths, & Christensen, 2012 ; Moreland, Coxe, & Yang, 2018 ); thus, interventions designed to reduce stigma toward mental illness are especially needed. Stigma Toward Mental Illness and Professional Help-Seeking Stigmatization means that there is a socially driven label (e.g., “not normal

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Adam Kern, William Heininger, Emily Klueh, Stephanie Salazar, Barbara Hansen, Trish Meyer, and Daniel Eisenberg

Student-athletes experience mental health problems, but they often encounter barriers to seeking help. This study reports findings from the pilot phase of Athletes Connected (AC), a new research and practice program at the University of Michigan addressing mental health and help-seeking behaviors among collegiate student-athletes. Members of the AC team gave presentations consisting of contact- and education-based interventions to every varsity athletic team at a large Division I Midwestern university, along with pre- and postsurvey questionnaires to measure their efficacy. The presentations included an educational overview of mental health, two videos highlighting former student-athletes’ struggles with mental illnesses, and a discussion at the end with the former athletes portrayed in the videos. A total of 626 student-athletes completed the pre- and postsurveys. Results indicated significant increases in knowledge and positive attitudes toward mental health and help-seeking. These results suggest that brief contact- and education-based interventions may be helpful in reducing stigma and promoting help-seeking behavior among college student-athletes.

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Matthew D. Bird, Eadie E. Simons, and Patricia C. Jackman

treated differently or unfairly (e.g., team selections; Gucciardi et al., 2017a ). Mental toughness therefore may not only influence an athlete’s psychological well-being, but also their perceptions and beliefs surrounding help-seeking should they need it. Despite some evidence demonstrating an