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Intramuscle Synergies: Their Place in the Neural Control Hierarchy

Mark L. Latash, Shirin Madarshahian, and Joseph M. Ricotta

( Bernstein, 1947 ; translation in Latash, 2020a ). Based primarily on ideas from the evolutionary biology and the available neurophysiological and clinical material, Bernstein introduced a hierarchical scheme for the neural control of movements with five main levels, formally labeled as levels A–E. The

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Human Movement: In Search of Borderlands Between Philosophy and Physics

Scott Kretchmar and Mark L. Latash

classical laws of nature described in physics textbooks. Furthermore, when biology-specific laws and rules are described, we are forced to introduce a system of nested hierarchies. The main hierarchy is motivated by the one introduced by Merleau-Ponty and presented earlier. Within that hierarchy, there are

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A Hierarchical Approach for Predicting Sport Consumption Behavior: A Personality and Needs Perspective

Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas, and John Otto Spengler

& Mowen, 2007 ). Interestingly, Mowen (2000) proposed a meta-theoretical model of motivation and personality (3M; hierarchical framework) and hypothesized that personality traits, needs, and situational factors interact through several hierarchical steps and ultimately impact an individual’s cognition

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A Case for Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling in Exercise Science Research

Sid Mitchell, E. Michael Loovis, and Stephen A. Butterfield

investigations account for multifaceted change through appropriate design and analysis. In this paper, we argue for the use of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an approach to analyzing data in the exercise sciences as this method more clearly captures the effects of developmental changes in physical

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How Coaching Ability Moderates Player Incentives to Perform: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach of the NFL

Anthony Koschmann

research makes several other contributions. It makes use of a novel and comprehensive data set of player performance from the 2008 NFL season. Measuring player quality is difficult, and even key scoring metrics are inadequate. This study uses an empirical Bayesian hierarchical linear model (HLM) that

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Hierarchical Linear Modeling of Multilevel Data

Samuel Y. Todd, T. Russell Crook, and Anthony G. Barilla

Most data involving organizations are hierarchical in nature and often contain variables measured at multiple levels of analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is a relatively new and innovative statistical method that organizational scientists have used to alleviate some common problems associated with multilevel data, thus advancing our understanding of organizations. This article presents a broad overview of HLM’s logic through an empirical analysis and outlines how its use can strengthen sport management research. For illustration purposes, we use both HLM and the traditional linear regression model to analyze how organizational and individual factors in Major League Baseball impact individual players’ salaries. A key implication is that, depending on the method, parameter estimates differ because of the multilevel data structure and, thus, findings differ. We explain these differences and conclude by presenting theoretical discussions from strategic management and consumer behavior to provide a potential research agenda for sport management scholars.

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Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

Amy Tischler and Nate McCaughtry

The purpose of this study was to examine boys’ perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high school students through 84 formal interviews, 200 e-mail interviews, and 135 ninety-minute class observations over 15 weeks. Data were analyzed using constant comparison with frequent member checks to facilitate trustworthiness. Three main findings emerged. First, boys described masculinity hierarchies in many past sport-based physical education classes as static and well-pronounced, which for many negatively impacted their perceptions of and engagement with physical activity. Second, boys described masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education at Apex High School as shifting and narrowing, which stood in stark contrast to the inequitable status differentials in many sport-based physical education classes. Third, shifting and narrowing masculinity hierarchies resulted in significant positive outcomes for boys, most notably enhancing their orientations toward physical activity. Findings from this study suggest that physical education settings that produce shifting and narrowing masculinity hierarchies can enhance boys’ perceptions of and engagement with physical activity both in and out of school.

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Testing a Hierarchy of Effects Model of Sponsorship Effectiveness

Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou, and Jeffrey D. James

The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.

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Exploring Substitutability Within College Sports through Hierarchical Choice Processes

Mauricio Ferreira

Understanding how spectators make decisions among the multiplicity of sport alternatives is important to the development of marketing strategies. In this study, a hierarchical choice framework was adopted to help illuminate the process in which individuals deal with sport substitution decisions within one university setting. In a forced-choice experiment, 419 college students were presented with existing sport offerings and asked, under constraint-free conditions, to make attendance choices with and without the most preferred alternative available. By observing students’ choices, the choice process was inferred based on the degree of switching that occurred between the two scenarios and tested whether it followed a hierarchical scheme. Results supported a “tree” structure for attendance choices, in which students consider the specific sport before considering the alternatives within the sport. Thus, under the conditions tested substitution was more likely to occur between alternatives of the same sport than either between different sports with the same sex of participants or proportionally across all alternatives.

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Examining the Physical Self in Adolescent Girls Over Time: Further Evidence against the Hierarchical Model

Kent C. Kowalski, Peter R.E. Crocker, Nanette P. Kowalski, Karen E. Chad, and M. Louise Humbert

This research examined the direction of causal flow between global and specific dimensions of self-concept. Although the multidimensionality of self-concept has been strongly supported in the literature, the hierarchical nature of self-concept has not been established. With the use of structural equation modeling, the hierarchical nature of self-concept was tested using the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) model both with and without global self-esteem included. Adolescent girls (N = 618) completed the PSPP and Harter’s global self-esteem scale during class time in Grade 9 and a year later in Grade 10. When horizontal effects were included in the self-concept models across age, there was little support for either top-down or bottom-up effects. This contrasted with the results found when the analysis was conducted within each time period separately. This research provides further evidence against the hierarchical model of self-concept and highlights the importance of examining the hierarchical nature of self-concept over time.