*Compulsory key training session. # CHO periodization strategy reviewed by Hawley and Burke (2010). Adapted from “Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Impairs Exercise Economy and Negates the Performance Benefit From Intensified Training in Elite Race Walkers,” by L.M. Burke, M.L. Ross, L.A. Garvican-Lewis, M
Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke
Jesse Fleming, Matthew J. Sharman, Neva G. Avery, Dawn M. Love, Ana L. Gómez, Timothy P. Scheett, William J. Kraemer and Jeff S. Volek
The effects of adaptation to a high-fat diet on endurance performance are equivocal, and there is little data regarding the effects on high-intensity exercise performance. This study examined the effects of a high-fat/moderate protein diet on submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal performance. Twenty non-highly trained men were assigned to either a high-fat/moderate-protein (HFMP; 61% fat) diet (n = 12) or a control (C; 25% fat) group (n = 8). A maximal oxygen consumption test, two 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests, and a 45-min timed ride were performed before and after 6 weeks of diet and training. Body mass decreased significantly (–2.2 kg; p ≤ .05) in HFMP subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption significantly decreased in the HFMP group (3.5 ± 0.14 to 3.27 ± 0.09 L · min−1) but was unaffected when corrected for body mass. Perceived exertion was significantly higher during this test in the HFMP group. Main time effects indicated that peak and mean power decreased significantly during bout 1 of the Wingate sprints in the HFMP (–10 and –20%, respectively) group but not the C (–8 and –16%, respectively) group. Only peak power was lower during bout 1 in the HFMP group when corrected for body mass. Despite significantly reduced RER values in the HFMP group during the 45-min cycling bout, work output was significantly decreased (–18%). Adaptation to a 6-week HFMP diet in non-highly trained men resulted in increased fat oxidation during exercise and small decrements in peak power output and endurance performance. These deleterious effects on exercise performance may be accounted for in part by a reduction in body mass and/or increased ratings of perceived exertion.
Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes and James A. Smith
-endurance runners . Metabolism . 2016 ; 65 ( 3 ): 100 – 110 . PubMed ID: 26892521 doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.028 26892521 10.1016/j.metabol.2015.10.028 2. Burke LM . Re-examining high-fat diets for sports performance: did we call the ‘Nail in the Coffin’ too soon? Sports Med . 2015 ; 45 ( suppl 1 ): 33
Heidi M. Staudacher, Andrew L. Carey, Nicola K. Cummings, John A. Hawley and Louise M. Burke
We determined the effect of a high-fat diet and carbohydrate (CHO) restoration on substrate oxidation and glucose tolerance in 7 competitive ultra-endurance athletes (peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] 68 ± 1 ml · kg−1 · min−1; mean±SEM). For 6 days, subjects consumed a random order of a high-fat (69% fat; FAT-adapt) or a high-CHO (70% CHO; HCHO) diet, each followed by 1 day of a high-CHO diet. Treatments were separated by an 18-day wash out. Substrate oxidation was determined during submaximal cycling (20 min at 65% V̇O2peak) prior to and following the 6 day dietary interventions. Fat oxidation at baseline was not different between treatments (17.4 ± 2.1 vs. 16.1 ± 1.3 g · 20 min−1 for FAT-adapt and HCHO, respectively) but increased 34% after 6 days of FAT-adapt (to 23.3 ± 0.9 g · 20 min−1, p < .05) and decreased 30% after HCHO (to 11.3±1.4 g · 20 min−1, p < .05). Glucose tolerance, determined by the area under the plasma [glucose] versus time curve during an oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) test, was similar at baseline (545±21 vs. 520±28 mmol · L−1 · 90 min−1), after 5-d of dietary intervention (563 ± 26 vs. 520 ± 18 mmol · L−1 · 90 min−1) and after 1 d of high-CHO (491 ± 28 vs. 489 ± 22 mmol · L−1 · 90min−1 for FAT- adapt and HCHO, respectively). An index of whole-body insulin sensitivity (SI 10000/÷fasting [glucose] × fasting [insulin] × mean [glucose] during OGTT × mean [insulin] during OGTT) was similar at baseline (15 ± 2 vs. 17 ± 5 arbitrary units), after 5-d of dietary intervention (15 ± 2 vs. 15 ± 2) and after 24 h of CHO loading (17 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 2 for FAT- adapt and HCHO, respectively). We conclude that despite marked changes in the pattern of substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise, short-term adaptation to a high-fat diet does not alter whole-body glucose tolerance or an index of insulin sensitivity in highly-trained individuals.
Estelle V. Lambert, Julia H. Goedecke, Charl van Zyl, Kim Murphy, John A. Hawley, Steven C. Dennis and Timothy D. Noakes
We examined the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD-CHO) versus a habitual diet, prior to carbohydrate (CHO)-loading on fuel metabolism and cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Five endurance-trained cyclists participated in two 14-day randomized cross-over trials during which subjects consumed either a HFD (>65% MJ from fat) or their habitual diet (CTL) (30 ± 5% MJ from fat) for 10 day, before ingesting a high-CHO diet (CHO-loading, CHO > 70% MJ) for 3 days. Trials consisted of a 150-min cycle at 70% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), followed immediately by a 20-km TT. One hour before each trial, cyclists ingested 400 ml of a 3.44% medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) solution, and during the trial, ingested 600 ml/hour of a 10% 14C-glucose + 3.44% MCT solution. The dietary treatments did not alter the subjects’ weight, body fat, or lipid profile. There were also no changes in circulating glucose, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during exercise. However, mean serum glycerol concentrations were significantly higher (p < .01) in the HFD-CHO trial. The HFD-CHO diet increased total fat oxidation and reduced total CHO oxidation but did not alter plasma glucose oxidation during exercise. By contrast, the estimated rates of muscle glycogen and lactate oxidation were lower after the HFD-CHO diet. The HFD-CHO treatment was also associated with improved TT times (29.5 ± 2.9 min vs. 30.9 ± 3.4 min for HFD-CHO and CTL-CHO, p < .05). High-fat feeding for 10 days prior to CHO-loading was associated with an increased reliance on fat, a decreased reliance on muscle glycogen, and improved time trial performance after prolonged exercise.
). Although trained endurance athletes exhibit an enhanced capacity for fat mobilization, transport, and oxidation, it can be further upregulated by short-term (∼5 days) exposure to a low-CHO, high-fat diet (LCHF; <20% energy from CHO and >60% energy from fat), even after acute restoration of high CHO
Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn
– 13 . PubMed ID: 25287761 doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011 25287761 10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011 Goedecke , J.H. , Christie , C. , Wilson , G. , Dennis , S.C. , Noakes , T.D. , Hopkins , W.G. , & Lambert , E.V. ( 1999 ). Metabolic adaptations to a high-fat diet in endurance cyclists
Kevin A. Jacobs, David R. Paul, Ray J. Geor, Kenneth W. Hinchcliff and W. Michael Sherman
The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of dietary composition on short-term endurance training–induced adaptations of substrate partitioning and time trial exercise performance. Eight untrained males cycled for 90 min at ~54% aerobic capacity while being infused with [6,62H]glucose before and after two 10-d experimental phases separated by a 2-week washout period. Time trial performance was measured after the 90-min exercise trials before and after the 2nd experimental phase. During the first 10-d phase, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a high carbohydrate or high fat diet while remaining inactive (CHO or FAT). During the second 10-d phase, subjects consumed the opposite diet, and both groups performed identical daily supervised endurance training (CHO+T or FAT+T). CHO and CHO+T did not affect exercise metabolism. FAT reduced glucose flux at the end of exercise, while FAT+T substantially increased whole body lipid oxidation during exercise and reduced glucose flux at the end of exercise. Despite these differences in adaptation of substrate use, training resulted in similar improvements in time trial performance for both groups. We conclude that (a) 10-d high fat diets result in substantial increases in whole body lipid oxidation during exercise when combined with daily aerobic training, and (b) diet does not affect short-term training-induced improvements in high-intensity time trial performance.
Stavros A. Kavouras, John P. Troup and Jacqueline R. Berning
To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 ± 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1–3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4–6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the HCHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial (104.5 ± 9.4 mmol/kg wet wt) when compared to the L-CHO trial (72.2 ± 5.6 mmol/kg wet wt). Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, and respiratory quotient during exercise were not significantly different between the 2 trials. Serum glucose during exercise for the H-CHO trial significantly increased (p < .05) from 4.5 ± 0.1 mmol · L−1 (pre) to 6.7 ± 0.6 mmol · L−1 (post), while no changes were found for the L-CHO trial. In addition, post-exercise serum glucose was significantly greater (p < .05) for the H-CHO trial when compared to the L-CHO trial (H-CHO, 6.7 ± 0.6 mmol · L−1; L-CHO, 5.2 ± 0.2 mmol · L−1). No significant changes were observed in serum free fatty acid, triglycerides, or insulin concentration in either trial. The findings suggest that L-CHO had no major effect on 45-min cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.