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Gregory J. Welk, Charles B. Corbin and Lisa A. Lewis

The Physical Self-Perception Profile (3) assesses perceptions of sport competence, physical conditioning, strength, and body attractiveness. Originally validated with college students, the profile has subsequently been adapted for use with younger children (13) and older adults (2) but not with teenage or athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor validity of the children’s version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (C-PSPP) for high school athletes (N = 542). The C-PSPP was given to athletes (both boys and girls) from a variety of competitive sports. The internal reliability of the subscales was good for both sexes (alphas = .73 to .83), with the exception of the Sport scale for the males (alpha = .64). A clear four-factor structure was evident, though cross loadings existed for males on the Sport scale. Results indicate that teenage athletes have strong physical self-perceptions compared to other populations, particularly regarding skill performance and conditioning.

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Molly Yanity and Aimee C. Edmondson

Coverage of the recruitment of high school athletes has exploded in the last decade as the advent of the Internet turned a once-obscure type of coverage into a multimillion-dollar industry. The demand for information about college football recruits has led to new ethical challenges for Web-based publications. This survey of sport media identifies some of the ethical challenges associated with such coverage and proposes a code of ethics for Web-based media outlets. Media covering high school recruiting can use these guidelines to gain and maintain credibility, to uphold a high level of ethics, and to avoid restrictions or rules mandated by an outside source in a specialized beat where high school students are the primary subjects.

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Charles B. Corbin, Steven A. Feyrer-Melk, Craig Phelps and Lisa Lewis

A group of 1,680 high school athletes were studied to determine factors associated with anabolic steroid use. A questionnaire assessed personal factors and steroid use, behavior of others and steroid use, and availability of anabolic steroids. Use rates were 1.1% for females and 2.4% for males. Steroids were more readily available to males, who also reported knowing more steroid users than did females. Older athletes were more likely to consider steroid use, but differences in use rate were not significant from Grade 8 to 12. Using discriminant analysis, significant differences (p < .001) were found for profiles of steroid users and nonusers for both males and females. For both males and females, personal factors such as having considered steroid use, a willingness to use them if they were legal, and a willingness to use them if they could insure success in sports were the most useful in classifying athletes as steroid users versus nonusers.

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J. L. Mayhew, Chad D. Kerksick, Doug Lentz, John S. Ware and David L. Mayhew

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of repetitions to fatigue (RTF) for estimating one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press performance in male high school athletes. Members of high school athletic teams (N = 213, age = 16.3 ± 1.1 yrs, weight = 79.9 ± 16.7 kg) from four states were tested for 1-RM bench press and RTF after completing 4–6 weeks of resistance training. A new equation for use with male high school athletes was developed from a random sample of 180 participants; it appears to have excellent predictive potential (r = 0.96, SEE = 4.5 kg) and cross-validated well on a subsample (n = 33) from this population (r = 0.98, t = 0.64). Therefore, RTF can be used with acceptable accuracy to estimate maximal strength in the majority of adolescent male athletes who need to handle excessively heavy weights.

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Thelma S. Horn, Susan D. Glenn and Amy B. Wentzell

This study was conducted to test whether there are age and gender differences in the criteria that high school athletes use to evaluate their ability in sport contexts. To test this issue, 435 high school athletes from a variety of sports were administered the Sport Competence information Questionnaire which provides a measure of preference for 10 competence information sources. A 2 × 2 (Gender × Age Level) MANOVA revealed that older adolescents were more apt to use self-comparison/internal information, goal achievement, and sport attraction/enjoyment to judge their sport ability while younger athletes were more dependent on the evaluation of peers. In addition, females scored higher than males on the use of self-comparison/internal information and on evaluative feedback from significant others. In contrast, males scored higher on the use of competitive outcomes and speed/ease of learning to evaluate personal sport competence. The results indicate that high school athletes do vary in the sources of information they use to judge their sport competence, and that gender and age can account for a significant amount of that variation.

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Ellen Yard and Dawn Comstock


There are over 7 million US high school athletes and one-third are overweight or obese. Our objective was to examine injury patterns by body mass index (BMI) in high school athletes.


Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) at 100 nationally representative US high schools submitted exposure and injury information during the 2005 to 08 school years via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). We retrospectively categorized injured athletes as underweight (≤15th percentile), normal weight (15th−85th percentile), overweight (85th−95th percentile), or obese (≥95th percentile).


ATCs reported 13,881 injuries during 5,627,921 athlete-exposures (2.47 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures). Nearly two-thirds (61.4%) of injured high school athletes were normal weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was highest among injured football athletes (54.4%). Compared with normal weight athletes, obese athletes sustained a larger proportion of knee injuries (Injury Proportion Ratio [IPR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.42) and their injuries were more likely to have resulted from contact with another person (IPR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.37). Compared with normal weight athletes, underweight athletes sustained a larger proportion of fractures (IPR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.92) and a larger proportion of injuries resulting from illegal activity (IPR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.46).


Injury patterns differ by BMI. BMI-targeted preventive interventions should be developed to help decrease sports injury rates.

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Leonard Marquart and Jeffery Sobal

This study examined the beliefs and sources of information regarding muscle development among 742 high school athletes in one rural county. About 40% of the athletes stated that muscle development was very important and 50% said it was somewhat important. Most of them recognized the dangers of steroids but still thought these were important in muscle development. A majority also thought nutritional and genetic factors were important. Physicians were seen as providing the most accurate information about muscle development, followed by coaches and trainers. Understanding the athletes’ beliefs and information sources about muscle development may be useful in dispelling misconceptions and providing education on the topic.

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Jeanne F. Nichols, Mitchell J. Rauh, Michelle T. Barrack, Hava-Shoshana Barkai and Yael Pernick

The authors’ purpose was to determine the prevalence and compare associations of disordered eating (DE) and menstrual irregularity (MI) among high school athletes. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and a menstrual-history questionnaire were administered to 423 athletes (15.7 ± 1.2 y, 61.2 ± 10.2 kg) categorized as lean build (LB; n = 146) or nonlean build (NLB; n = 277). Among all athletes, 20.0% met the criteria for DE and 20.1% for MI. Although the prevalence of MI was higher in LB (26.7%) than NLB (16.6%) athletes (P = 0.01), no differences were found for DE. For both sport types, oligo/amenorrheic athletes consistently reported higher EDE-Q scores than eumenorrheic athletes (P < 0.05). Athletes with DE were over 2 times as likely (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.2) to report oligo/amenorrhea than athletes without DE. These data establish an association between DE and MI among high school athletes and indicate that LB athletes have more MI but not DE than NLB athletes.

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Douglas Worthen and James K. Luiselli

Female high school athletes playing volleyball and soccer (N = 32) responded to a social validity questionnaire that inquired about their experiences with a sportfocused mindfulness training program. On average, the student-athletes rated most highly the effects of mindfulness training on emotional awareness and attention focusing, the contribution of mindfulness toward team play, the benefit of having coaches learn mindfulness skills, and the application of mindfulness to other sports. There were dissimilar ratings between the volleyball and soccer student-athletes concerning use of mindfulness when preparing for and during games. Most of the formal mindfulness practices taught during the training program were rated as being helpful to very helpful. We discuss factors influencing these findings and implications for mindfulness–sport performance research.

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George A. Arangio, Marie St. Amour-Myers and James Reed

Four hundred sixty-seven high school athletes were screened in apreparticipation athletic physical. Forty-six (9.8%) of these athletes presented with asymptomatic, nontraumatic unilateral hyperextension. Twenty-three athletes were reexamined and compared to a normal control group. A 2.5-cm, statistically significant heel-to-heel difference was recorded in the hyperextension group. Between the involved hyperextended and uninvolved legs, there were differences in average range of motion (132.04° vs. 130.74°, respectively), average manual anterior translation by KT-1000 (5.39 mm vs. 5.15 mm, respectively), average posterior translation (2.07 mm vs. 2.00 mm, respectively), average peak quadriceps torque (86.25 ft-lb vs. 84.06 ft-lb, respectively), and hamstring average peak torque (53.89 ft-lb vs. 52.93 ft-lb, respectively), though these differences were not statistically significant. In the control group, there was no heel-to-heel difference in the right versus the left knee. Heel-to-heel difference between the experimental and control groups was statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between range of motion, anterior translation, or posterior translation between the experimental and control groups.