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The Cognitive Component of Elite High Jumpers’ Preperformance Routines

Thomas Gretton, Lindsey Blom, Dorice Hankemeier, and Lawrence Judge

research remain underexamined. With this in mind, this case study sought to contribute to PPR research by exploring the cognitive PPR component, which relates to the psychological skills, techniques, and experiences of a unique population in elite high jumpers. The sport of high jump was selected for this

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Contributions of Angular Momentum and Catting to the Twist Rotation in High Jumping

Jesús Dapena

This project sought to break down high jump twist rotation into portions contributed by angular momentum and those contributed by rotational action and reaction ("catting"). Five male and 5 female high jumpers were studied with three-dimensional film/video analysis procedures. The hip twist angle at the peak was broken down into an initial twist angle at takeoff and the subsequent twist rotation accumulated between takeoff and the peak. The latter was in turn broken down into rotations contributed by the twisting component of angular momentum and rotations contributed by catting. It was found that the contribution of catting to the twist rotation was at least as large as that of the angular momentum. The important contribution of catting to the twist rotation introduces the possibility that defects in its execution might play a role in the problems that some high jumpers have with twist rotation.

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A Regression Analysis of High Jumping Technique

Jesús Dapena, Craig McDonald, and Jane Cappaert

It is difficult to ascertain for an individual high jumper the optimum values of the horizontal velocity and height of the center of mass at the end of the approach ran (VHO and H0, respectively) and of the activeness of the arms during the takeoff phase (AACT), because they depend on each athlete’s ability to resist buckling of the takeoff leg. However, the strongest jumpers will generally be those with the largest vertical elocity values at the end of the takeoff phase (VZ1). Therefore, VZ1 may serve as a rough indicator of a high jumper’s ability to resist buckling. This project derived equations that permit the use of the measured VZ1 value of a high jumper to predict what values should be expected for VHO, H0, and AACT. Comparison of the predicted and actual values of these parameters should help to diagnose the technique deficiencies of individual jumpers.

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Effects of Caffeine on Performance During High- and Long-Jump Competitions

Ana C. Santos-Mariano, Fabiano Tomazini, Cintia Rodacki, Romulo Bertuzzi, Fernando De-Oliveira, and Adriano E. Lima-Silva

The high and long jump are track-and-field events demanding a number of physical capacities such as velocity, strength, and power. 1 During a high-jump event, athletes must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed as high as possible. The jump is divided into 3 phases: approach, take-off, and

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The Relationship Between Subjective Wellness and External Training Load in Elite English Premier League Goalkeepers and a Comparison With Outfield Soccer Players

Sophie Grimson, Gary Brickley, Nicholas J. Smeeton, Adam Brett, and Will Abbott

)** GK average time to feet 1.35 (0.32) 1.37 (0.37) 1.33 (0.31) 1.39 (0.40) 1.68 (3.62) GK high jump c 3.5 (4.0) 4.18 (4.2) 4.21 (4.93) 4.53 (5.75) 3.97 (4.39) GK medium jump c 10.2 (10.3) 11.18 (5.79) 11.71 (7.85) 11.68 (7.46) 10.76 (5.90) GK low jump c 9.6 (5.7) 11.17 (5.72) 11.67 (5.82) 10.90 (5.77) 9

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Biomechanical Characteristics of Jumping

Ossi Aura and Jukka T. Viitasalo

Four track and field athletes were subjects in a study that analyzed seven jumping exercises and flop-style high jump takeoffs for ground reaction forces, knee angular kinematics, and electromyographic activities of knee extensor musculature. The ground contact times varied between 177 ±13 (flop) and 278 ±25 ms (standing five jumps). The peak ground contact forces were from 5002±130 N (special drop jump) to 8202±901 N (ranning five hops). Average knee angular velocities were highest in the eccentric phase of the flop takeoff (ω = 7.1 ± 2.1 rad × s-1). Electromyographic activities before the ground contact and during the eccentric phase of contact were highest in the flop-style high jump, while during the concentric phase of contact a special drop jump exercise showed the highest activity. Preactivity IEMG correlated with the eccentric IEMG, force, and knee angular velocity positively and with the contact time negatively (p<0.001), while eccentric IEMG correlated with the eccentric force and angular velocity positively and with the contact time negatively (p<0.001).

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The Influence of Touchdown Parameters on the Performance of a High Jumper

Matthew P. Greig and Maurice R. Yeadon

In order to maximize the mass center vertical velocity at toe-off and thereby jump height the approach parameters in high jumping must be optimized. The present study aimed to determine the influence on jump height of the approach speed, the leg plant angle, and the knee angle at touchdown. Sixteen trials by an elite male high jumper were recorded in a single training session. Direct intervention was used to induce a change in technique so that a greater range in approach speed was obtained than was observed in competition. The optimum approach was shown to be fast (7.0 m · s–1) with the leg planted away from the vertical (34°) and with minimum knee flexion. A regression equation was obtained which was able to account for 79% of the observed variation in jump height. Jump height performance was shown to be most sensitive to changes in leg plant angle and knee angle at touchdown.

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Rearfoot Kinematics during Initial Takeoff of Elite High Jumpers: Estimation of Spatial Position and Orientation of Subtalar Axis

Bart Van Gheluwe, Philip Roosen, and Kaat Desloovere

As the spatial position and orientation of the subtalar ankle axis documented in biomechanical literature has mainly been estimated in unloaded conditions, it was hypothesized that high loads on the subtalar joint during very dynamic movements may force the respective axis away from its normal anatomical location. Therefore, high jump takeoffs of two elite athletes were selected to estimate and analyze the kinematic behavior of the subtalar axis during initial takeoff. The subtalar motion of the calcaneus was reconstructed using 3-D high-speed cinematography and a three-segment ankle model expressing subtalar pronation as the movement of the calcaneus around the talus. Results revealed that the subtalar axis moved away from its initial orientation and position at first heel impact, respectively more horizontally and laterally. The pronational angular displacement and velocity were calculated for all jumps and reached maximal values close to 30°, respectively 2000°/s. They compared surprisingly well with values obtained from frontal plane projections as used in a conventional cinematographical approach. But values corresponding to a subtalar axis fitting conventional anatomical descriptions showed consistently larger discrepancies, up to 10° for pronational displacement and close to 600°/s for pronational velocity. Finally, a comparison with results obtained from helical or screw axes produced nearly identical findings, suggesting good validity of the analytical techniques applied in this study for the 3-D reconstruction of the subtalar axis.

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Assessing the Perceptual-Motor Interaction in Developmentally Disabled and Nonhandicapped Children

Allen W. Burton

The purpose of this experiment was to design a gross-motor task that would quantify the perceptual sensitivity of developmentally disabled (DD) and nonhandicapped (NH) children to the relationship between their personal constraints and the constraints in the environment in a movement context. Three groups of subjects participated in this experiment: 17 DD preschoolers, 25 NH kindergarteners, and 27 NH fourth-graders. The subjects moved through a sequence of four high-jump barriers six times as quickly as possible, negotiating the barriers any way they wanted. They also went through the course without the barriers as quickly as possible to establish a baseline movement time. Relative to their own baseline, the fourth-graders moved through the obstacle course significantly faster than the kindergarteners, while the kindergarteners went through the course significantly faster than the DD preschoolers. In addition, significant differences were found between the NH kindergarteners and DD preschoolers for two sets of perceptual variables: percent error and the slopes of two identified transitions from one mode of locomotion to another. These results and further analyses showed that at least some of the movement problems experienced by DD children can be attributed to perceptual difficulties, and established the potential of the present methodology in examining perceptual sensitivity in a movement context in DD and NH children.

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Sex Differences in Athletic Performance

Lynda B. Ransdell and Christine L. Wells

Do women out-perform men in endurance sports? Are women as strong, pound for pound, as men? Many questions have been raised about the ability of women and men to perform physical tasks equally well. The issue of sex differences and similarities in performance has considerable significance today as women seek physically demanding careers in police-work, fire-fighting, the military, industry, and athletics. As more women participate in recreational and career opportunities formerly open only to men, knowledge about sex differences in response to physical exertion and training becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describes differences between the sexes in athletic performance.

Most performance differences are due to variations in morphological (structural) or physiological characteristics typical of women and men (Wells, 1991). Nevertheless, variations in these characteristics are often as large or larger within each sex as they are between the sexes. The same is true of physical performance. Thus, when the entire population is considered, there are extensive differences in performance within each sex, and considerable overlap in performance between the sexes.

We will base our examination of performance differences on the most outstanding performances of each sex: those exemplified by World Records in athletic events. We seek to answer such questions as: How large are sex differences in world record performances? Can existing performance differences be explained entirely by biological differences between the sexes? Or, are a large portion of these performance differ-ences attributable to sociocultural factors?

We will analyze sex differences in performance relative to the human energy system. This system allows an extraordinary range of mechanisms for neuromuscular coordination and metabolism. Because of this, the human has a virtually unlimited movement repertoire and is capable of movements requiring large bursts of energy over very brief periods of time, as well as movements requiring low levels of energy production over very long periods of time. We will progress from sports that require very high intensity and explosive quality movements such as jumping and power lifting, through the “energy spectrum” to feats of endurance such as marathon running, ultra-distance triathlon, and open-water distance swimming.

Due to our desire to focus this paper on a reasonable amount of data, our analysis will be limited as follows:

1) for sex differences in high intensity-brief duration, explosive per-formance, we will discuss the high jump, long jump, and various mea-sures of strength (powerlifting),

2) for sex differences in high intensity-short duration performance, we will present data on sprint running (100m, 400m) and swimming (100m),

3) for sex differences in moderate intensity-moderate duration performance, we will discuss middle-distance running (1500m, 5000m, 10,000m), and swimming (1500m), and

4) for differences in low intensity-long duration performance, we will discuss the marathon, the "Ironman Triathlon," and open ocean distance swimming.