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Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel and David R. Lubans

youth in physical activity of sufficient volume and intensity to maintain and improve CRF. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a relatively novel and time-efficient strategy for improving CRF in adolescents. HIIT involves short bursts of high-intensity activity (ie, ≥85% heart rate

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

-controlled, counterbalanced design was used to determine if EECP could enhance recovery after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, where each subject acted as his or her own control. Subjects were informed that they were participating in a study comparing the effects of 2 different EECP protocols: one that

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Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is regarded as a highly effective training modality to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning, and it is a common practice in training regimens of many athletes, particularly those involved in endurance events. 1 In HIIT, repeated periods of

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Milos Mallol, David J. Bentley, Lynda Norton, Kevin Norton, Gaizka Mejuto and Javier Yanci

effects of short periods of intensified, or high-intensity interval training (HIIT), in athletes have become popular and underpinned by research studies showing it to be an effective method of training, 1 , 4 , 5 although not in all studies. 6 HIIT is a training method structured as repeated bouts

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José D. Jiménez-García, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Manuel de la Torre-Cruz, Raquel Fábrega-Cuadros, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, David Cruz-Díaz and Antonio Martínez-Amat

intrinsic risk factors ( Nemoto, Gen-no, Masuki, Okazaki, & Nose, 2007 ). One of the main barriers to the habitual practice of physical exercise in adults is “the lack of time” ( Stutts, 2002 ). With this in mind, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was developed with low-volume exercises. Furthermore

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Meaghan E. Maddigan, David G. Behm and Glen R. Belfry

Context:

High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve muscle power and endurance, as well as aerobic power.

Objective:

To assess the effects of HIIT that utilizes resistive elastic bands to improve overhand throwing velocity.

Participants:

Healthy female volunteers (n = 13) ranging in age from 18–29 years.

Interventions:

Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group that exercised 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Each training session involved performance of 5 sets of 20 throwing motions against elastic band resistance, which was performed by both extremities.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal oxygen consumption was measured during performance of a graded exercise test that utilized an upper extremity cycle ergometer. A radar gun was used to assess peak throwing velocity and the extent to which throwing velocity was sustained during performance of a 20-throw endurance test.

Results:

After completing the training, the experimental group exhibited faster peak throwing velocity (61.6 ± 6.6 km/hr to 63.2 ± 8.6 km/hr) and a reduced fatigue index (1.18 ± 0.16 to 1.01 ± 0.02). Training also resulted in a 14% improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (1.40 ± 0.46 L/min to 1.60 ± 0.49 L/ min) and longer time to fatigue (9.99 ± 1.84 min to 11.43 ± 2.29 min).

Conclusion:

The high-intensity interval training program was effective for improvement of overhand throwing performance.

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Inès Boukabous, Alexis Marcotte-Chénard, Taha Amamou, Pierre Boulay, Martin Brochu, Daniel Tessier, Isabelle Dionne and Eléonor Riesco

reasons ( Craft, Carroll, & Lustyk, 2014 ). In this context, low-volume (75 min/week) high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently suggested as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition, metabolic profile, and cardiorespiratory fitness in inactive adults and in adults living with

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James J. Hoffmann Jr, Jacob P. Reed, Keith Leiting, Chieh-Ying Chiang and Michael H. Stone

Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

Purpose:

Variables currently used in soccer training monitoring fail to represent the physiological demand of the player during movements like accelerations, decelerations and directional changes performed at high intensity. We tested the hypothesis that respiratory frequency (f R) is a marker of physical effort during soccer-related high-intensity exercise.

Methods:

Twelve male soccer players performed a preliminary intermittent incremental test and two shuttle-run high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols, in separate visits. The two HIIT protocols consisted of 12 repetitions over 9 min and differed in the work-recovery ratio (15:30s vs. 30:15s). Work rate was self-paced by participants to achieve the longest possible total distance in each HIIT protocol.

Results:

Work-phase average metabolic power was higher (P < 0.001) in the 15:30s (31.7 ± 3.0 W·kg-1) compared to the 30:15s (22.8 ± 2.0 W·kg-1). Unlike heart rate and V̇O2, f R showed a fast response to the work-recovery alternation during both HIIT protocols, resembling changes in metabolic power even at supramaximal intensities. Large correlations (P < 0.001) were observed between f R and rating of perceived exertion during both 15:30s (r = 0.87) and 30:15s (r = 0.85).

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that f R is a good marker of physical effort during shuttle-run HIIT in soccer players. These findings have implications for monitoring training in soccer and other team sports.

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Matthew W. Driller, James W. Fell, John R. Gregory, Cecilia M. Shing and Andrew D. Williams

Purpose:

Several recent studies have reported substantial performance and physiological gains in well-trained endurance runners, swimmers, and cyclists following a period of high-intensity interval training (HIT). The aim of the current study was to compare traditional rowing training (CT) to HIT in well-trained rowers.

Methods:

Subjects included 5 male and 5 female rowers (mean ± SD; age = 19 ± 2 y; height = 176 ± 8 cm; mass = 73.7 ± 9.8 kg; Vo2peak = 4.37 ± 1.08 L·min−1). Baseline testing included a 2000-m time trial and a maximal exercise test to determine Vo2peak, 4-min all-out power, and 4 mmol·L−1 blood lactate threshold. Following baseline testing, rowers were randomly allocated to HIT or CT, which they performed seven times over a 4-wk period. The HIT involved 8 × 2.5-min intervals at 90% of the velocity maintained at Vo2peak, with individual recoveries returning to 70% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate between intervals. The CT intensity consisted of workloads corresponding to 2 and 3 mmol·L−1 blood lactate concentrations. On completion of HIT or CT, rowers repeated the testing performed at baseline and were then allocated to the alternative training program and completed a crossover trial.

Results:

HIT produced greater improvements in 2000-m time (1.9 ± 0.9%; mean ± SD), 2000-m power (5.8 ± 3.0%), and relative Vo2peak (7.0 ± 6.4%) than CT.

Conclusion:

Four weeks of HIT improves 2000-m time-trial performance and relative Vo2peak in competitive rowers, more than a traditional approach.