In a recent study competitive road cyclists experienced substantial gains in sprint and endurance performance when sessions of high-intensity interval training were added to their usual training in the competitive phase of a season. The current study reports the effect of this type of training on performance of 20 distance runners randomized to an experimental or control group for 5 to 7 weeks of training. The experimental group replaced part of their usual competitive-phase training with 10 × 30-minute sessions consisting of 3 sets of explosive single-leg jumps (20 for each leg) alternating with 3 sets of resisted treadmill sprints (5 × 30-second efforts alternating with 30-second recovery). Before and after the training period all runners completed an incremental treadmill test for assessment of lactate threshold and maximum running speed, 2 treadmill runs to exhaustion for prediction of 800- and 1500-m times, and a 5-km outdoor time trial. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (±90% confidence limits) in the experimental group were: maximum running speed, 1.8% (± 1.1%); lactate-threshold speed, 3.5% (±3.4%); predicted 800-m speed, 3.6% (± 1.8%); predicted 1500-m speed, 3.7% (± 3.0%); and 5-km time-trial speed, 1.2% (± 1.1%). We conclude that high-intensity resistance training in the competitive phase is likely to produce beneficial gains in performance for most distance runners.
Ryan J. Hamilton, Carl D. Paton and William G. Hopkins
Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis
-Tzerefos, Jeffs, Winter, & Holland, 2013 ; Taylor, Binns, & Signal, 2017 ). That is, these reviews focused on the effect of HIIT or high-intensity resistance training on a variety of health outcomes such as sarcopenia, cognitive health, muscle strength, psychological status, quality of life, rate of falls, power
Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise training on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately obese women. It was hypothesized that exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate. Nineteen previously sedentary, moderately obese women (age = 38.0 ± 0.9 years, percent body fat = 37.5 ± 0.8) trained for 20 weeks using either resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance training arid walking (RT/W). The high intensity resistance training program was designed to increase strength and fat-free mass and the walking program to increase aerobic capacity. There was also a non-exercising control group (C) of 9 subjects in this study. Fat-free mass was significantly increased in both the RT (+1.90 kg) and RT/W (+1.90 kg) groups as a result of the training program. No group showed significant changes in fat mass or relative body fat from pre- to post-training. Aerobic capacity was slightly, though significantly, increased in the RT/W group only. The RT group showed a significant increase (+44 kcal · day−1), while the RT/W group showed a significant decrease (-53 kcal · day−1) in resting metabolic rate post-training. RT can potentiate an increase in RMR through an increase in fat-free mass, and the decrease in RMR in the RT/W group may have been a result of heat acclimation from the walk training.
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological well-being that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.
J. Matt Green, P. Jason Wickwire, John R. McLester, Shawn Gendle, Geoffrey Hudson, Robert C. Pritchett and C. Matt Laurent
Ergogenic effects of caffeine on aerobic or endurance exercise are well documented. Conversely, the ergogenic value of caffeine on high-intensity, primarily anaerobic performance is not well understood even though the proposed mechanisms of action for caffeine permit a strong theoretical basis for application to this type of exercise.
This study examined effects of caffeine (Ca) on number repetitions (reps), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and peak heart rate (PHR) during resistance-training exercise with reps performed to volitional failure.
Subjects (N = 17) were tested for 10-rep maximum in bench press (BP) and leg press (LP). In sessions 2 and 3, Ca (~6 mg/kg) or placebo (Pl) was ingested 1 hr beforehand in a double-blind manner and counterbalanced order. Subjects performed 3 sets to failure (BP and LP) with reps, PHR, and RPE recorded each set. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, 2 (trial) × 3 (set), were used to analyze dependent measures with the Tukey honestly significant difference used when necessary as the post hoc test.
In BP, no significant differences (Ca vs Pl) were observed (reps, RPE, PHR). During set 3 of LP training, Ca was associated with significantly higher reps (12.5 ± 4.2 vs 9.9 ± 2.6) and PHR (158.5 ± 11.9 vs 151.8 ± 13.2). No signifcant RPE differences were found during LP.
The findings of similar RPE concurrent with higher reps suggest that caffeine can blunt pain responses, possibly delaying fatigue in high-intensity resistance training. Ergogenic effects might be limited to the later sets in a resistance-training session. Further research is warranted regarding ergogenic effects of caffeine during resistance training and potential mechanisms of action.
Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa
of vagal modulation) after 8 weeks of training ( Caruso et al., 2015 , 2017 ). Although conventional high-intensity resistance training may improve cardiovagal activity, as shown as increases in RMSSD in middle age women with fibromyalgia ( Figueroa et al., 2008 ); some studies have not found
Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall
T , Ogasawara R , Sakamaki M , Ozaki H , Sato Y , Abe T . Combined effects of low-intensity blood flow restriction training and high-intensity resistance training on muscle strength and size . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2011 ; 111 ( 10 ): 2525 – 2533 . PubMed ID: 21360203 doi:10.1007/s
Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König
meta-analysis . Sports Med . 2018 ; 48 ( 2 ): 361 – 378 . PubMed ID: 29043659 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0795-y 10.1007/s40279-017-0795-y 29043659 3. Vechin FC , Libardi CA , Conceicao MS , et al . Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity
Manoel E. Lixandrão, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Maira Miquelini, Ieda F. Alvarez and Cleiton Augusto Libardi
-015-3253-2 26323350 10.1007/s00421-015-3253-2 6. Vechin FC , Libardi CA , Conceição MS , et al . Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly . J Strength Cond Res . 2015 ; 29 ( 4
Diego Alonso-Fernandez, Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias, Tania García-Remeseiro and Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez
– 1444 . PubMed ID: 7836150 doi: 10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2069 28. Seynnes OR , de Boer M , Narici MV . Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training . J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 102 ( 1 ): 368 – 373 . doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol