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Adam C. Clansey, Mark J. Lake, Eric S. Wallace, Tom Feehally and Michael Hanlon

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged high-intensity running on impact accelerations in trained runners. Thirteen male distance runners completed two 20-minute treadmill runs at speeds corresponding to 95% of onset of blood lactate accumulation. Leg and head accelerations were collected for 20 s every fourth minute. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were recorded during the third and last minute of each run. RPE responses increased (P < .001) from the start (11.8 ± 0.9, moderate intensity) of the first run to the end (17.7 ± 1.5, very hard) of the second run. Runners maintained their leg impact acceleration, impact attenuation, stride length, and stride frequency characteristics with prolonged run duration. However, a small (0.11–0.14g) but significant increase (P < .001) in head impact accelerations were observed at the end of both first and second runs. It was concluded that trained runners are able to control leg impact accelerations during sustained high-intensity running. Alongside the substantial increases in perceived exertion levels, running mechanics and frequency domain impact attenuation levels remained constant. This suggests that the present trained runners are able to cope from a mechanical perspective despite an increased physiological demand.

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Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Theodoros I. Platanou and Argyris G. Toubekis

Water polo is an intermittent sport that encompasses high-intensity efforts of short duration alternating with longer periods of low-intensity movements. 1 , 2 It has been reported that the overall exercise intensity during a competitive water polo game corresponds to players’ lactate threshold, 3

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

benefit. 7 , 8 However, for many athletes, common practice often dictates consumption of carbohydrate prior to training sessions and competition regardless of the duration, and particularly if the training is at a high intensity. Endurance athletes will regularly train in the morning, but for many, the

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F. Marcello Iaia, Rampinini Ermanno and Jens Bangsbo

This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (>85% HRmax) leads to VO2max enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (~2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

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Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel and David R. Lubans

youth in physical activity of sufficient volume and intensity to maintain and improve CRF. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a relatively novel and time-efficient strategy for improving CRF in adolescents. HIIT involves short bursts of high-intensity activity (ie, ≥85% heart rate

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen

-induced vascular dysfunction. Thus, this study sought to determine the impact of a prior high-intensity interval exercise bout on prolonged sitting-induced vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that the exercise stimulus would result in an attenuation of lower limb vascular dysfunction throughout a 3-hour bout of

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

in an attainment of a higher performance level. 1 Several strategies have been proposed to enhance exercise recovery within or between high-intensity sessions. 1 – 3 Although active recovery (ie, low-intensity exercise) has been demonstrated to be more effective than passive recovery (ie, total rest

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Georges Baquet, Gregory Dupont, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier and Serge Berthoin

, including repeated bursts of activity with rapid recovery. Short, high-intensity intermittent exercise (S-HIIE) allows a high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ) to be elicited in both adults ( 30 ) and children ( 2 ), and therefore it may be an efficient tool to improve children’s aerobic

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Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

exercise include lack of time and interest in commonly prescribed activities (eg, brisk walking/running), which are perceived as repetitive and boring. 8 – 11 With the intention of reducing the time commitment associated with exercise, short-duration high-intensity sprint and interval training (HIIT

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Jason R. Boynton, Fabian Danner, Paolo Menaspà, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Chris R. Abbiss

low intensities (ie, below lactate threshold) coupled with short and intermittent bouts of high-intensity interval exercise or training (HIIT). 10 The influence of T A on performance and physiological response to such exercise is not well understood. Despite HIIT being a relatively small part of