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Anika Frühauf, Christiane Pahlke, and Martin Kopp

and High Risk Sports In adventure/high risk sports (AHRS), which are also known to impact one’s identity, indications were found that women develop their own identities apart from traditional gender roles ( Dilley & Scraton, 2010 ; Thorpe, 2005 ). Houge Mackenzie and Hodge (2020) define adventure

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Tim Woodman, Matt Barlow, Comille Bandura, Miles Hill, Dominika Kupciw, and Alexandra MacGregor

Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI’s good model–data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

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Lenny D. Wiersma

Extreme sport athletes perform in environments that are characterized by danger, unpredictability, and fear, and the consequences of a mistake include severe injury or death. Maverick’s is a big-wave surfing location in northern California that is known for its cold water temperatures, dangerous ocean wildlife, deep reef, and other navigational hazards. The purpose of this study was to use a phenomenological framework to understand the psychology of big-wave surfing at Maverick’s. Seven elite big-wave surfers completed in-depth phenomenological interviews and discussed the psychology related to various stages of big-wave surfing, including presurf, in the lineup, catching the wave, riding the wave, wiping out, and postsurf. Big-wave surfers described a variety of experiences associated with surfing at Maverick’s and discussed several ways that they coped with its challenges. The results provide a greater understanding of the psychology of participating in an extreme environment.

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Tim Woodman and Charlotte Welch

regulation benefits via other, more adaptive means. Specifically, researchers have found that high-risk sports ( Bonnet et al., 2017 ; Panno et al., 2019 ; Woodman et al., 2010 ) offer a particularly fertile emotion regulation framework for individuals high in alexithymia ( Woodman et al., 2009 ). Fenichel

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Carole Castanier, Christine Le Scanff, and Tim Woodman

Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen’s negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

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Laura Sanchez

This study uses qualitative interviews with 29 parents of horseback riding daughters aged 10–23 years old to explore parents’ perceptions of risk and their risk management strategies, as their daughters engage in horse sports and recreation. First, parents are keenly aware of risks in equestrian sports and liken them to risks from automobile accidents and other high-risk sports. Second, parents manage these risks by working diligently to enhance safety and manage their own emotions. Third, they willingly assume these risks as a part of their fundamental commitment to honor their daughters’ desires, natural skills, and dreams as equestrian athletes. I situate these findings within the theoretical literature on risky play within a cultural context of condemnation of parents’ permissiveness about risk-taking.

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Susan C. Davies and Brenna M. Bird

Student-athletes often fail to report concussion signs and symptoms, thereby putting themselves at risk for delayed recovery and permanent impairment. The present study examined motivations for underreporting concussion symptoms among college athletes enrolled at an NCAA Division I university. One hundred and ninety-three student-athletes in high-risk sports completed a multiple-choice survey related to self-reporting of suspected concussion symptoms and reporting of teammates’ symptoms. Results indicated that 45% of participants did not report their own suspected concussions during the present season and 50% did not report suspected concussions in teammates. Responses revealed that the primary reason for underreporting a suspected concussion was the belief that the blow to the head was not serious enough. Suggestions are provided for athletes, athletic staff, and coaches to improve players’ awareness of the signs, symptoms, and consequences of concussions, as well as how to report suspected concussions appropriately.

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D.W. Robinson

Although it has generated much theorizing (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; Ellis, 1973; Harris, 1980; Mitchell, 1983), the phenomenon of stress-seeking behavior, as demonstrated in regular long-term involvement in the high-risk sports, has not been researched widely. In an attempt to go beyond the prevalent but simplistic "exhilaration' ' type of explanation for stress-seeking, this study examined the phenomenon in terms of the psychological characteristics associated with successful long-term involvement in the risk sport of rock climbing. Four behavioral characteristics were assessed: sensation seeking (SS), defined as "the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences and the willingness to undertake physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences" (Zuckerman, 1979, p. 10); trait anxiety (TA), which refers to relatively stable individual differences in anxiety proneness (Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970); need for achievement (NAch), which relates to the determinants of direction, magnitude, and persistence of behavior when the individual knows that his or her performance will be evaluated (Atkinson, 1964); and affiliation (AFF), which refers to the tendency to seek out, attain, and maintain a social bond with other people (Alderman, 1974).

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Myles Murphy, Marshall Stockden, Ken Withers, William Breidahl, and Jonathon Charlesworth

per club. 3 Furthermore, primary anterior shoulder dislocations demonstrate an extremely high recurrence rate in young athletes (<30 y of age) playing high-risk sports. 4 – 6 A range of surgical options exists for anterior shoulder dislocation, and these options have been shown to be superior to

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Megan M. Gardner, Jeff T. Grimm, and Bradley T. Conner

engage in traditional sports ( Michel et al., 1997 ; Rowland et al., 1986 ; Zuckerman 1983 ). More recently, Lasenby-Lessard and Morrongiello ( 2011 ) examined the presence of risk compensation in sport-experienced children who were high in sensation-seeking and who engaged in high-risk sports