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James W. Navalta, Jeffrey Montes, Nathaniel G. Bodell, Charli D. Aguilar, Ana Lujan, Gabriela Guzman, Brandi K. Kam, Jacob W. Manning and Mark DeBeliso

population is utilizing wearable technology. Among the most common leisure activities is hiking, which has seen participation increase almost 200 fold in recent years, and is one of the top two outdoor activities performed ( Cordell et al., 2005 ; Manning et al., 2015 ). Additionally, trail running has seen

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Giuliamarta Bottoni, Dieter Heinrich, Philipp Kofler, Michael Hasler and Werner Nachbauer


During sport activity, knee proprioception might worsen. This decrease in proprioceptive acuity negatively influences motor control and therefore may increase injury risk. Hiking is a common activity characterized by a higher-intensity-exercise phase during uphill walking and a lower-intensity-exercise phase during downhill walking. Pain and injuries are reported in hiking, especially during the downhill phase.


To examine the effect of a hiking-fatigue protocol on joint-position sense.


Repeated measures.


University research laboratory.


24 nonprofessional sportswomen without knee injuries.

Main Outcome Measures:

Joint-position sense was tested at the beginning, after 30 min uphill walking, and after 30 min downhill walking on a treadmill (continuous protocol).


After downhill walking, joint-position sense was significantly worse than in the test at the beginning (P = .035, α = .05). After uphill walking, no differences were observed in comparison with the test at the beginning (P = .172, α = .05) or the test after downhill walking (P = .165, α = .05).


Downhill walking causes impairment in knee-joint-position sense. Considering these results, injury-prevention protocols for hiking should focus on maintaining and improving knee proprioception during the descending phase.

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Thomas R. Collingwood, Alicia Adcock and John Librett


There is little data on hiking patterns in national parks to support hiking behavior as a vehicle to meet the joint YMCA, CDC, and National Park Service initiatives to encourage physical activity through public land use.


The YMCA of the Rockies hiking program provided data from Hike Report forms completed after 343 supervised hikes for one summer season in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to assess visitor hiking patterns.


Of the total hikes, 64.4% were categorized as easy, 27.1% moderate, and 8.5% difficult. There were 1937 individual hikers which represented 13.3% of the estimated potential hiker sample. The majority of hikers (69%) only took easy hikes with 72.7% participating in only one hike and 27.3% doing two or more hikes. Energy cost estimates for hike categories indicated mean MET levels between 4.0 to 5.7.


Hiking patterns at ROMO may be reflective of general population inactivity suggesting the need to design strategies to promote visitor hiking.

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Margot Callewaert, Jan Boone, Bert Celie, Dirk De Clercq and Jan G. Bourgois

The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (m. vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high-level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8–14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine mean power frequency (MPF) and root mean square (RMS). Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and re-oxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40% VO2peak, 30% VEpeak and 70% HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF decrease, RMS increase, and deoxy[Hb+Mb] increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.

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Margot Callewaert, Stefan Geerts, Evert Lataire, Jan Boone, Marc Vantorre and Jan Bourgois


To develop a sailing ergometer that accurately simulates upwind sailing exercise.


A sailing ergometer that measures roll moment accompanied by a biofeedback system that allows imposing a certain quasi-isometric upwind sailing protocol (ie, 18 bouts of 90-s hiking at constantly varying hiking intensity interspersed with 10 s to tack) was developed. Ten male high-level Laser sailors performed an incremental cycling test (ICT; ie, step protocol at 80 W + 40 W/3 min) and an upwind sailing test (UST). During both, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), respiratory-exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were measured. During UST, also the difference between the required and produced hiking moment (HM) was calculated as error score (ES). HR, VO2, and VE were calculated relative to their peak values determined during ICT. After UST, the subjects were questioned about their opinion on the resemblance between this UST and real-time upwind sailing.


An average HM of 89.0% ± 2.2% HMmax and an average ES of 4.1% ± 1.8% HMmax were found. Mean HR, VO2, and VE were, respectively, 80% ± 4% HRpeak, 39.5% ± 4.5% VO2peak, and 30.3% ± 3.7% VEpeak. Both HM and cardiorespiratory values appear to be largely comparable to literature reports during on-water upwind sailing. Moreover, the subjects gave the upwind sailing ergometer a positive resemblance score.


Results suggest that this ergometer accurately simulates on-water upwind sailing exercise. As such, this ergometer could be a great help in performance diagnostics and training follow-up.

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Martin D. Hoffman and Thomas M. Myers

Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2–10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer’s). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH.

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni, Demir Barić and Sebastià Mas-Alòs

has a vast provision of trails and managed areas to do outdoor activities, such as hiking, mountain biking, snow activities, and off-road driving. 16 Inside the park, there are 3 different snow areas and more than 170 trails (permitting off-road driving) and paths. A detailed description is provided

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

7% 1 ± 1 0% AS Self-arresting techniques 91 ± 13 149 ± 16 3.1 ± 1.4 205 ± 27 84% 30 ± 22 13% 7 ± 7 3% MP Hiked and ascended two mountain peaks in knee-deep snow with full gear Set up camp Descended to base camp 111 ± 15 157 ± 13 6.1 ± 1.6 221 ± 84 58% 124 ± 60 33% ± 16% 32 ± 29 9% ± 8% Note . AS

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni and Demir Barić

intensity 3.0 to 5.9 METs, and vigorous intensity ≥6 METs. 23 Using the classification in the Compendium of Physical Activities to measure the level of PA intensities, later research 15 , 16 , 21 revealed that engagement in moderate-intensity PA (ie, recreational walking and hiking) predominated among

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Jinkyu Lee, Yong-Jin Yoon and Choongsoo S. Shin

during level walking, little is known about the biomechanical effects of load carriage during uphill walking. Uphill walking is a challenging task in daily life. For example, hiking is 1 of the most popular recreational activities. 23 The transition between level walking to uphill walking requires