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Peter Francis, Kay Gray and Nic Perrem

Key Points ▸ Hip abductor strength is moderately associated with single-leg dynamic balance as measured by the Y-Balance test (YBT). ▸ The association between hip strength and single-leg dynamic balance is strongest during the posterior reaches of the YBT. ▸ The requirement for greater hip flexion

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Cale Jacobs and Carl Mattacola

Context:

Decelerating movements such as landing from a jump have been proposed to be a common mechanism of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

Objective:

To compare eccentric hip-abductor strength and kinematics of landing between men and women when performing a hopping task.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Patients:

18 healthy subjects (10 women, 8 men).

Main Outcome Measures:

Eccentric peak torque of the hip abductors and peak knee-joint angles during a 350-millisecond interval after impact.

Results:

No significant sex differences were present, but there was a significant inverse relationship between women's eccentric peak torque and peak knee-valgus angle (r = –.61, P = .03).

Conclusions:

Women with larger eccentric peak torque demonstrated lower peak knee-valgus angles. By not reaching as large of a valgus angle, there is potentially less stress on the ACL. Increasing eccentric hip-abductor strength might improve knee-joint kinematics during landing from a jump.

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Mario A. DiMattia, Ann L. Livengood, Tim L. Uhl, Carl G. Mattacola and Terry R. Malone

Context:

The Trendelenburg and single-leg-squat (SLS) tests are purported measures of hip-abduction strength that have not been previously validated.

Objective:

To correlate isometric hip-abduction strength to frontal-plane hip motion during an SLS and determine the criterion validity of a clinical-observation-analysis method to grade an SLS against 2-dimensional kinematic analysis.

Design:

Single-measure, concurrent validity.

Setting:

Biodynamics research laboratory.

Participants:

50 uninjured participants.

Main Outcome Measures:

Hip-abduction strength and hip and knee kinematic data during a Trendelenburg test and an SLS.

Results:

A weak, positive correlation between hip-abduction strength and hip-adduction angle was found during both the Trendelenburg (r = .22, P = .13) and the SLS (r = .21, P = .14) tests. The observation-analysis method revealed a low sensitivity, .23, and a higher specificity, .86, when compared with the kinematic data.

Conclusion:

The usefulness of the Trendelenburg and SLS test in screening hip-abductor strength in a healthy physically active population is limited. The origin of observable deficits during SLS requires further objective assessment.

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James J. Hannigan, Louis R. Osternig and Li-Shan Chou

to quantify the relationship between hip strength and proximal kinematics during running. To date, the results of these studies are not in agreement. While one study found significant correlations between isokinetic hip abduction strength and both pelvic drop and trunk rotation in a mixed-sex cohort

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Karen D. Kendall, Christie Schmidt and Reed Ferber

Context:

It has been theorized that a positive Trendelenburg test (TT) indicates weakness of the stance hip-abductor (HABD) musculature, results in contralateral pelvic drop, and represents impaired load transfer, which may contribute to low back pain. Few studies have tested whether weakness of the HABDs is directly related to the magnitude of pelvic drop (MPD).

Objective:

To examine the relationship between HABD strength and MPD during the static TT and during walking for patients with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) and healthy controls (CON). A secondary purpose was to examine this relationship in NSLBP after a 3-wk HABD-strengthening program.

Design:

Quasi-experimental.

Setting:

Clinical research laboratory.

Participants:

20 (10 NSLBP and 10 CON).

Intervention:

HABD strengthening.

Main Outcome Measures:

Normalized HABD strength, MPD during TT, and maximal pelvic frontal-plane excursion during walking.

Results:

At baseline, the NSLBP subjects were significantly weaker (31%; P = .03) than CON. No differences in maximal pelvic frontal-plane excursion (P = .72), right MPD (P = 1.00), or left MPD (P = .40) were measured between groups. During the static TT, nonsignificant correlations were found between left HABD strength and right MPD for NSLBP (r = −.32, P = .36) and CON (r = −.24, P = .48) and between right HABD strength and left MPD for NSLBP (r = −.24, P = .50) and CON (r = −.41, P = .22). Nonsignificant correlations were found between HABD strength and maximal pelvic frontal-plane excursion for NSLBP (r = −.04, P = .90) and CON (r = −.14, P = .68). After strengthening, NSLBP demonstrated significant increases in HABD strength (12%; P = .02), 48% reduction in pain, and no differences in MPD during static TT and maximal pelvic frontal-plane excursion compared with baseline.

Conclusions:

HABD strength was poorly correlated to MPD during the static TT and during walking in CON and NSLBP. The results suggest that HABD strength may not be the only contributing factor in controlling pelvic stability, and the static TT has limited use as a measure of HABD function.

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Benjamin R. Wilson, Kaley E. Robertson, Jeremy M. Burnham, Michael C. Yonz, Mary Lloyd Ireland and Brian Noehren

 al, 11 in a study of participants with chronic ankle instability, showed positive correlations between both hip abduction strength and hip extension strength and posteromedial and posterolateral reach distance on the SEBT. Conversely, Lee et al, 13 in a study of elderly females, did not find

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Adam Culiver, J. Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M. Creed, John E. Conway, Shiho Goto and Sherry Werner

body while maintaining 90° of knee flexion and minimizing hip flexion on the testing side. Hip abduction strength was measured with the participant in side lying and the hip being tested placed in neutral hip extension, neutral rotation, and slight abduction while the knee was fully extended. The

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

ramp-up period) was taken as the hip abductor strength for that ABC. Strength values were expressed as a percentage of a baseline ABC taken at least 5 minutes prior to the beginning of each standing session to allow for between-participant comparisons. The difference between the normalized strength for

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Brent I. Smith, Denice Curtis and Carrie L. Docherty

neuromuscular strategies affecting muscle strength and biomechanics, 27 which alter performance in balance and gait. In addition to diminished postural stability, individuals with diminished hip abduction strength have also demonstrated altered ankle neuromuscular activation during balance tasks, and it has

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Richard A. Brindle, David Ebaugh and Clare E. Milner

strengthening is a common component of treatment. 3 In a side-lying hip abductor strength test, an adduction force is applied to the patient’s limb through a handheld dynamometer that either matches or exceeds the patient’s maximum isometric force. In a hip abductor eccentric strength test or “break test,” the