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John H. Hollman, Nicholas J. Beise, Michelle L. Fischer, and Taylor L. Stecklein

muscles. 1 – 5 The premise supporting these risk factors is that impaired hip muscle function may lead to excessive hip adduction and medial rotation during lower-extremity weight-bearing tasks, 6 – 10 leading to altered forces at the hip or knee that increase injury risk. 11 – 13 Neuromuscular control

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Michelle Boling, Darin Padua, J. Troy Blackburn, Meredith Petschauer, and Christopher Hirth

Context:

Clinicians commonly attempt to facilitate vastus medialis oblique (VMO) activity by instructing patients to squeeze a ball between their knees during squatting exercises.

Objective:

To determine whether VMO activation amplitude and the VMO to vastus lateralis (VL) activation ratio (VMO:VL) were altered when performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise.

Design:

Single test session.

Participants:

Fifteen healthy subjects, with no history of knee pain, volunteered for this study.

Intervention:

Surface EMG of the VMO, VL, and hip adductor (ADD) muscles were recorded while subjects performed 10 consecutive squats against their body weight through a range of 0° to 90° of knee flexion. Subjects performed the squat exercises during two different conditions: (1) active hip adduction and (2) no hip adduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average VMO EMG amplitude and VMO:VL ratio were determined during the knee flexion (0° to 90°) and knee extension (90° to 0°) phases of the squat exercise.

Results:

Active hip adduction did not significantly change VMO amplitude or VMO:VL ratio during the knee flexion or knee extension phases of the dynamic squat exercise.

Conclusions:

Based on these results, we conclude that VMO amplitude and the VMO: VL ratio are not influenced by performing active hip adduction during a dynamic squat exercise in healthy subjects.

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James J. Hannigan, Louis R. Osternig, and Li-Shan Chou

alter hip and pelvis kinematics during running, 12 , 17 , 18 possibly even increasing hip adduction range of motion. 16 Thus, decreased pain after rehabilitation does not appear to be a result of changing hip kinematics during running. To better understand these findings, some studies have attempted

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Kathryn Harrison, Adam Sima, Ronald Zernicke, Benjamin J. Darter, Mary Shall, D.S. Blaise Williams III, and Sheryl Finucane

participation in the sport. 5 , 10 Biomechanics during running have also been associated with the risk of running-related injury. Greater peak hip adduction was prospectively observed in female runners who later experienced patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) 11 and iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) 12

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Shogo Takano, Yoshitaka Iwamoto, Junya Ozawa, and Nobuhiro Kito

kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes. 5 – 9 Healthy women show greater hip adduction and internal rotation during gait, running, and single-leg squats than healthy men. 5 – 9 Greater hip adduction and internal rotation are kinematic features of patients with PFP. 10 Biomechanical studies using

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Hae-rim Han, Chung-hwi Yi, Sung-hyun You, Heon-seock Cynn, One-bin Lim, and Jae-ik Son

pain, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and patellofemoral pain syndrome can occur. In addition, delayed onset of GMED activity can occur during stair ambulation. 3 , 4 Individuals with GMED weakness have reported the increase of hip adduction, internal rotation, and knee abduction during day

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert, and John Z. Srbely

musculature. 4 This has been supported through gender differences in hip adduction and knee abduction angles (greater in females) during single-leg squats, 3 and subsequent improvements in these same outcomes have been reported during single-leg squats through neuromuscular training programs. 5

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Justin P. Waxman, Kevin R. Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, and Jeffrey B. Taylor

hip-adduction angles compared to the moderate-stiffness group (mean difference = 2.27 ± 0.83°, P  = .022). No other pairwise differences were observed at initial contact. There were statistically significant between-group differences in peak frontal-plane trunk angle during the landing ( P  = .043

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Marcie Fyock, Nelson Cortes, Alex Hulse, and Joel Martin

misalignment of the lower limbs are often reported as the main causes of PFP. 3 , 5 – 7 Several prominent factors appear to be related to motion of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. Current research suggests increased contralateral pelvic drop, hip adduction, and hip internal rotation as a potential contributing

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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

; greater peak ankle eversion 7 – 9 ; lower eversion range of motion (ROM) and peak eversion velocity 8 ; greater ankle peak knee adduction 10 ; greater peak hip adduction 7 , 11 , 12 and internal rotation 10 , 12 , 13 ; greater knee abduction moment and angular impulse 14 ; and greater hip abduction