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Jane E. Clark, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jill Whitall

emergence of a new direction for thinking and researching motor development and appeared to set the course for a new era in the history of the field. We have limited our choices to those studies published between 1928 and 1991; that is, from the start of the scientific study of motor development to the

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Jill Whitall, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Melissa M. Pangelinan, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jane E. Clark

Three decades ago, Clark and Whitall ( 1989 ) wrote a paper in which they characterized the history of motor development research from the early baby biographies of the 18 th century to the process-oriented approach of the 1980s as represented by four distinct eras or periods. In the accompanying

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Sharon A. Plowman, Charles L. Sterling, Charles B. Corbin, Marilu D. Meredith, Gregory J. Welk and James R. Morrow Jr.

Initially designed by Charles L. Sterling as a physical fitness “report card” FITNESSGRAM ® / ACTIVITYGRAM ® is now an educational assessment and reporting software program. Based on physiological/epidemiological, behavioral, and pedagogical research, FITNESSGRAM is committed to health-related physical fitness, criterion-referenced standards, an emphasis on physical activity including behavioral based recognitions, and the latest in technology. The evolution of these major concepts is described in this history of FITNESSGRAM.

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Megan N. Houston, Johanna M. Hoch and Matthew C. Hoch

that injury-related fear can affect a range of athletes with various orthopedic conditions. Despite increased fears in other populations, the literature pertaining to injury-related fear in patients with a history of ankle sprain is limited. In a case report, 12 a patient recovering from a medial

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John Wong

By Stephen Hardy and Andrew C. Holman. Published in 2018 by the University of Illinois Press (582 pp., $125.00 USD, Hardback, $29.95 USD Paperback). Anyone who follows the careers of Steve Hardy and Andrew Holman would know their passion for the history of hockey, and Hockey: A Global

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Shawn Russell, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

clinicians when working with individuals who have a history of LBP. Participation in sport may require individuals to perform landing tasks as part of the activity. Altered landing strategies between individuals with and without both back pain 5 and LBP have previously been reported. 6 , 7 This includes

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Patricia Vertinsky and Alison Wrynn

opening up the breadth of embodied and gendered practices deemed suitable for examination by sport historians, Park’s pioneering and meticulous scholarship helped turn a narrow lane into the broad and busy highway that sport history has now become—a highway where many of those who knew and admired her and

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Patricia A. Vertinsky

Despite growing indications of increased participation in healthful physical activity among the elderly, aging women tend to participate in exercise and sport to a lesser extent than their male peers. This paper suggests that strongly held beliefs about the potential risks of vigorous exercise deter many elderly women from being physically active. It then examines the gendered nature of myths and stereotypes concerning aging and physical activity and explores those social and cultural factors that have historically persuaded aging women to practice "being" old and inactive before "becoming" old. The purpose is to elaborate upon studies in the history of aging which indicate that popular perceptions rather than reality shaped social expectations, professional prescriptions, and public policy. These studies suggest how the creation of negative stereotypes around the aging female paved the way for an unbalanced version of the realities of female old age, at times delimiting aspirations and constraining opportunities for vigorous and healthful physical activity.

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Tom Fabian

scandalous history of one such IF. The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) has hitherto received inadequate public, media, or scholarly inquiry and, as a historian, I hope to remedy this knowledge gap. For, it is the responsibility of the historian to review the historical underpinnings of

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Jane E. Clark

How we understand the emergence and development of motor behavior and skillfulness has itself developed over the last 50 years. In reflecting on the history of motor development, it is important to recognize that these ‘reflections’ are much like the painter’s “pentimento.” That is, the ‘canvas’ we paint today of what our science was decades ago is actually a painting with many layers—each representing where our views have changed along the journey. I do not “repent” with these reflections, as suggested by the term, pentimento, but rather I seek to bring a developmental perspective to our scientific inquiries into motor development with an element of a revisionist’s approach. What were the key discoveries and the seminal papers that influenced our canvas of motor development that we view today? Almost three decades ago, we (Clark & Whitall, 1989) outlined an historical framework for the field of motor development. Today, we can look back at that framework and the ensuing science and consider where we have been and what we have learned and ask: What does the pentimento of our motor development canvas reveal?