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Shane J. Gore, Brendan M. Marshall, Andrew D. Franklyn-Miller, Eanna C. Falvey and Kieran A. Moran

When reporting a subject’s mean movement pattern, it is important to ensure that reported values are representative of the subject’s typical movement. While previous studies have used the mean of 3 trials, scientific justification of this number is lacking. One approach is to determine statistically how many trials are required to achieve a representative mean. This study compared 4 methods of calculating the number of trials required in a hopping movement to achieve a representative mean. Fifteen males completed 15 trials of a lateral hurdle hop. Range of motion at the trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle, in addition to peak moments for the latter 3 joints were examined. The number of trials required was computed using a peak intraclass correlation coefficient method, sequential analysis with a bandwidth of acceptable variance in the mean, and a novel method based on the standard error of measurement (SEMind). The number of trials required across all variables ranged from 2 to 12 depending on method, joint, and anatomical plane. The authors advocate the SEMind method as it demonstrated fewer limitations than the other methods. Using the SEMind, the required number of trials for a representative mean during the lateral hurdle hop is 6.

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Ilaria Masci, Giuseppe Vannozzi, Nancy Getchell and Aurelio Cappozzo

Assessing movement skills is a fundamental issue in motor development. Current process-oriented assessments, such as developmental sequences, are based on subjective judgments; if paired with quantitative assessments, a better understanding of movement performance and developmental change could be obtained. Our purpose was to examine the use of inertial sensors to evaluate developmental differences in hopping over distance. Forty children executed the task wearing the inertial sensor and relevant time durations and 3D accelerations were obtained. Subjects were also categorized in different developmental levels according to the hopping developmental sequence. Results indicated that some time and kinematic parameters changed with some developmental levels, possibly as a function of anthropometry and previous motor experience. We concluded that, since inertial sensors were suitable in describing hopping performance and sensitive to developmental changes, this technology is promising as an in-field and user-independent motor development assessment tool.

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Paige E. Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K. Merritt and Jeffrey M. McBride

SSC performance of dancers, a bilateral hopping SSC task was utilized in this investigation. Hopping performance, similar to that of jumping, has been shown to be greater in elite athletic populations as well. 23 By restricting knee joint movement, contribution from the isolated ankle joint and lower

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Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark

quantifying subtle changes. Hop testing is highly prevalent in lower limb rehabilitation, especially post knee surgery or in patellofemoral pain. Measuring quality of landing is challenging for clinicians using hop testing. Laboratory-based systems that quantify balance often require specific fixed

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Abbigail Ristow, Matthew Besch, Drew Rutherford and Thomas W. Kernozek

been reported with the use of foot orthoses. 24 The single-leg triple hop has been used to help assess dynamic knee stability, 25 , 26 lower-extremity dynamic strength, 26 progress during rehabilitation, 26 and identifying those at risk of injury. 25 , 27 This activity has been proposed to be

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Earl Smith and Angela J. Hattery

had been living. (Laclau, 1977 ) Today—when Dr. Dre is an Apple executive, Jay-Z has partnered with Samsung on an album release, and Snoop Dogg has appeared in Chrysler commercials—the St. Ides campaign appears strange, a relic from a time when Hip Hop culture hadn’t yet earned wider Madison Avenue

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Nathan Millikan, Dustin R. Grooms, Brett Hoffman and Janet E. Simon

runs, vertical jumps, hop tests, and balance tests. 5 – 11 This form of testing provides an indication of an athlete’s physical capability regarding rehabilitation progress or return to play readiness. However, isolated physical performance is only 1 aspect of function that must be restored after

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Jeff J. Brodeur, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

athletes with ACLR reached the return-to-play threshold of 85% of quadriceps strength relative to the uninvolved limb at the 6-month postoperative visit. More recently, assessment of dynamic function has been emphasized with established metrics, such as dynamic balance, functional hop, and agility

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Hooman Minoonejad, Mohammad Karimizadeh Ardakani, Reza Rajabi, Erik A. Wikstrom and Ali Sharifnezhad

measure of feedback neuromuscular control, in individuals with CAI. 14 Various interventions, including a hop stabilization intervention, have also resulted in feedback neuromuscular control improvements in the ankle musculature. 15 , 16 However, lateral ankle sprains and CAI are recommended to be

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Prasanna Sritharan, Luke G. Perraton, Mario A. Munoz, Peter Pivonka and Adam L. Bryant

. 2 Increasing the rate of postsurgery participation in sport represents a challenge to rehabilitation research and may be garnered through improvements in clinical assessment. The single-leg hop for distance is a well-studied and routinely employed task in the functional evaluation of ACLR