The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and physical activity (PA) on the cognitive performance of older women. Postmenopausal women (n = 101) were recruited to complete a PA questionnaire, provide demographic information, and perform the digit-symbol substitution task (DSST) and the trail-making tests (TMT). Regression analyses were conducted for participants with complete data for each cognitive test (DSST n = 62; TMT n = 69). For both tasks, results indicated that PA and education were positively related and age was negatively related to cognitive performance. The interaction of HRT with PA did not add to the predicted variance of either measure of cognitive performance. This was true even after limiting the HRT users to women using unopposed estrogen. It is concluded that the beneficial relationship between PA and these two measures of cognitive performance in postmenopausal women exists irrespective of HRT use.
Jennifer L. Etnier and Benjamin A. Sibley
Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Eric D.B. Goulet and Isabelle J. Dionne
Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) attenuates the menopause-associated alterations in body composition. It is not known, however, whether this effect is a result of a concomitant increase in energy expenditure. The authors examined whether women submitted to a long-term HRT treatment presented greater energy expenditure than women who had never used HRT. We compared 13 postmenopausal women using HRT (>1 yr) with 13 age- (±2 yr) and body-mass-index-matched (BMI; ±1.5kg/m2) postmenopausal women not using HRT. Resting energy expenditure (REE; indirect calorimetry), body composition, and daily (DEE) and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure (accelerometry) were obtained. Although BMI, fat mass, fat-free mass, DEE, and PAEE were similar between groups, the HRT group displayed a significantly greater REE than the no-HRT group (Δ +222 kcal/day). In conclusion, the authors observed that a long-term treatment with HRT is associated with a greater REE in postmenopausal women. These results need to be confirmed.
Ross E. Andersen, Carlos J. Crespo, Shawn C. Franckowiak and Jeremy D. Walston
Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and physical activity are both related to aging and health. U.S. minorities are more likely to be inactive and less likely to initiate HRT than are non-Hispanic White women. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of race and HRT use with physical inactivity among older women (60+ years). The authors used data from 3,479 women who had participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted in 1988-1994. NHANES III included an in-person interview and a medical examination. The prevalence of physical inactivity among women who reported ever having used HRT was 28.5% (CI 22.9–34.1%), compared with 40.0% (CI 35.9–44.1%) among those who had never used HRT. Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women reported higher levels of inactivity than did non-Hispanic White women across HRT-use categories. To promote successful aging, physicians should educate postmenopausal women on the possible health benefits of HRT combined with an active lifestyle.
Jennifer L. Copeland, Samuel Y. Chu and Mark S. Tremblay
Women experience significant changes in endocrine function during aging. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women and, as a result, there has been an increase in the use of pharmacological hormone therapies. It is difficult to distinguish, however, between physiological changes that are truly age related and those that are associated with lifestyle factors such as physical activity participation. Some research has shown that circulating levels of anabolic hormones such as DHEA(S) and IGF-I in older women are related to physical activity, muscle function, and aerobic power. Exercise-intervention studies have generally shown that increasing age blunts the acute hormonal response to exercise, although this might be explained by a lower exercise intensity in older women. There have been relatively few studies that examine hormonal adaptations to exercise training. Physical activity might have an effect on hormone action as a result of changes in protein carriers and receptors, and future research needs to clarify the effect of age and exercise on these other components of the endocrine system. The value and safety of hormone supplements must be examined, especially when used in combination with an exercise program.
Darryn S. Willoughby, Kaitlan N. Beretich, Marcus Chen and LesLee K. Funderburk
al., 1999 ). However, there are data suggesting that there is no relationship between circulating estradiol and muscle strength by comparing older women engaged in hormone replacement therapy with those engaged in no hormone replacement therapy ( Humphries et al., 1999 ; Teixeira et al., 2003 ). Aside from
Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen
. , Alén , M. , Pöllänen , E. , Palonen , E. , Ankarberg-Lindgren , C. , … Sipilä , S. ( 2009 ). Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy modifies skeletal muscle composition and function: A study with monozygotic twin pairs . Journal of Applied Physiology, 107 ( 1 ), 25 – 33 . PubMed ID
Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett and Susan E. Hankinson
2082 postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, women in the fourth versus first quartile of self-reported total PA had 10% higher SHBG, 6% lower estradiol, and 19% lower testosterone levels. 4
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima
-one volunteers (29%) were identified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) and 88 (42%) as overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m 2 ). Sixty-two individuals (29%) had a BMI less than 25 and were therefore classified as normal weight. There were no between-group differences for age, height, foot length, hormone replacement therapy
Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale
), and estrogen is associated with an increase in lipid oxidation with sparing of both glycogen and protein ( Tarnopolsky, 2008 ). Therefore, hormonal replacement therapy in postmenopausal women may confer some ergogenic benefit to female masters athletes. Concomitant with an aging-associated decline in
Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa
as the natural absence of menstruation for at least 1 year. Exclusion criteria included smoking, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and other diseases that can influence the autonomic nervous system, musculoskeletal problems that would limit RT, and the use of medication or hormone replacement