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Short-Term Psychological and Hormonal Effects of Virtual Reality Training on Chronic Low Back Pain in Soccer Players

Gopal Nambi, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Saud F. Alsubaie, Ayman K. Saleh, Anju Verma, Mohamed A. Abdelaziz, and Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry

reorganization is the right approach to obtain the positive outcome in such patients. It is also observed that blood levels of stress hormones such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol (COR) were altered under stressful conditions such as trauma, injury, and

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Hormonal, Physiological, and Physical Performance During Simulated Kickboxing Combat: Differences Between Winners and Losers

Ibrahim Ouergui, Philip Davis, Nizar Houcine, Hamza Marzouki, Monia Zaouali, Emerson Franchini, Nabil Gmada, and Ezzedine Bouhlel

The aim of the current study was to investigate the hormonal, physiological, and physical responses of simulated kickboxing competition and evaluate if there was a difference between winners and losers. Twenty athletes of regional and national level participated in the study (mean ± SD age 21.3 ± 2.7 y, height 170.0 ± 5.0 cm). Hormone (cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as upper-body Wingate test and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, were measured before and after combats. Heart rate (HR) was measured throughout rounds 1, 2, and 3 and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken after each round. All combats were recorded and analyzed to determine the length of different activity phases (high-intensity, low-intensity, and referee pause) and the frequency of techniques. Hormones, glucose, [La], HR, and RPE increased (all P < .001) precombat to postcombat, while a decrease was observed for CMJ, Wingate test performance, body mass (all P < .001), and time of high-intensity activities (P = .005). There was no difference between winners and losers for hormonal, physiological, and physical variables (P > .05). However, winners executed more jab cross, total punches, roundhouse kicks, total kicks, and total attacking techniques (all P < .042) than losers. Kickboxing is an intermittent physically demanding sport that induces changes in the stress-related hormones soliciting the anaerobic lactic system. Training should be oriented to enhance kickboxers’ anaerobic lactic fitness and their ability to strike at a sufficient rate. Further investigation is needed to identify possible differences in tactical and mental abilities that offer some insight into what makes winners winners.

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Acute and Long-Term Changes in Blood-Borne Biomarkers in Response to Dynamic Standing in Nonambulant Children With Cerebral Palsy

Tibor V. Varga, Åsa Andersson, Katarina Lauruschkus, and Åsa B. Tornberg

of cortisol is 10 to 20 ng/mL. All children had elevated cortisol levels. The normal range of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is 6 to 76 pg/mL. Only one participant was classified as having normal levels, while 12 children had low levels (one missing). Median levels of laboratory biomarkers at

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Systemic Sirtuin 1 as a Potential Target to Mediate Interactions Between Body Fat and Testosterone Concentration in Master Athletes

Patricio Lopes de Araújo Leite, Larissa Alves Maciel, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Caio Victor Sousa, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves, Ivo Vieira de Sousa Neto, Lucca Campbell Simões, Thiago dos Santos Rosa, and Herbert Gustavo Simões

quality of life ( Veldhuis et al., 2009 ). Testosterone is the main steroid hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics ( Molina, 2021 ), besides acting on metabolism and body composition, mainly preserving muscle mass ( De Pergola, 2000 ). The decreased

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Alternate-Day Low Energy Availability During Spring Classics in Professional Cyclists

Ida A. Heikura, Marc Quod, Nicki Strobel, Roger Palfreeman, Rita Civil, and Louise M. Burke

-day racing. Our aim was to (1) assess energy and carbohydrate availability and changes in blood hormones as a consequence of changes in EA in professional male cyclists over 4 separate single-day races within an 8-day period and (2) to investigate the robustness of our methodology to collect data in a

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Combined Exercise Modulates Cortisol, Testosterone, and Immunoglobulin A Levels in Individuals Living With HIV/AIDS

Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres, and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

mellitus, or obesity. 14 – 16 However, as there was no increase in cortisol after combined exercise in the present study, it is possible to suggest that the 3 sets of 15 maximum repetitions used in this study can be considered safe for ILWHA. Testosterone is a hormone associated with several anabolic

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Hormonal Ergogenic Aids

Alan D. Rogol

Most hormonal agents used for nonmedical purposes in athletes have legitimate medical uses. This review introduces each compound by its pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and legitimate medical use and reviews information on its abuse. Human growth hormone is presently available in virtually unlimited quantities due to its production by recombinant DNA technology. Its use in athletes is considered for its muscle-building, fat-depleting properties. Erythropoietin is a kidney hormone that increases red cell mass. It is used for renal dialysis patients to avoid blood transfusions. Its use in athletes is to raise red blood cell mass in an attempt to augment maximal oxygen capacity and the ability to do endurance work. Human chorionic gonadotropin has the biological activity of luteinizing hormone to increase testosterone synthesis and to maintain (partially) testicular volume when exogenous androgens are taken. Clenbuterol is a beta2 adrenergic agonist with muscle-building properties that are seemingly specific to striated muscle; clenbuterol may cause reduction in body fat.

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Quantitative Hormone Analysis Reveals Sources of Variability in the Menstrual Cycle

Gavin Francis and Nicola Keay

changes in reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], estradiol, and progesterone). Although the sequence of physiological changes over the menstrual cycle is well defined, there is notable variability, between cycles and across women, in the timing and the levels

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Physical Activity and Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin in Older Adults

Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Michael D. Denkinger, Bernhard O. Boehm, Wolfgang Koenig, Jochen Klenk, and ActiFE Study Group*

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and other steroids. Low SHBG serum levels are associated with many adverse health effects in older adults, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, endothelial function, specific cancers, and low bone mineral density

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Objective and Self-Reported Measures of Physical Activity and Sex Hormones: Women’s Lifestyle Validation Study

Marquis Hawkins, Deirdre K. Tobias, Hala B. Alessa, Andrea K. Chomistek, Junaidah B. Barnett, Walter C. Willett, and Susan E. Hankinson

Physical activity (PA) has been associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Indeed, physical inactivity has been attributed to an estimated 10% of breast cancer cases worldwide. 1 The relationship between PA and breast cancer risk may be mediated through its effects on sex hormones