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Tessa M. Pollard and Cornelia Guell

Background:

We assessed the quality of data on physical activity obtained by recall from Muslim women of South Asian origin, and the feasibility of using accelerometer-based physical activity monitors to provide more objective measures of physical activity in this group.

Methods:

In this largely qualitative study, 22 British Pakistani women were asked to wear accelerometers (the GT1M Actigraph and/or the Sensewear Armband) for 4 days, provided 2 24-hour recalls of activities, and were interviewed about their experiences with the monitors.

Results:

Women reported spending most of their time in housework and childcare, activities which generated the majority of recorded bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, women had difficulty in recalling the timing, and assessing the intensity, of these usually unstructured activities. A significant minority of accelerometer datasets were incomplete and some women reported either forgetting to wear the acceler-ometer or finding it intrusive.

Conclusions:

Questionnaires are unlikely to provide an accurate assessment of physical activity in this group of women. This suggests that accelerometer data will be preferable. However, collecting sufficient data for large-scale studies using activity monitors in this population will be challenging.

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Airton J. Rombaldi, Ana M.B. Menezes, Mario Renato Azevedo and Pedro C. Hallal

Objectives:

To explore whether participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with participation in occupational, housework, and transport-related physical activity.

Methods:

Population-based cross-sectional study covering a multistage sample of 972 subjects age 20 to 69 years. Physical activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A LTPA score was calculated as follows: min/wk of walking + min/wk of moderate-intensity physical activity + (min/wk of vigorous-intensity physical activity × 2). Similar scores were generated for each domain. For categorical analyses, the scores were divided into 3 categories: 0 min/wk, 10−149 min/wk, and ≥150 min/wk.

Results:

The proportion of subjects practicing less than 150 min/wk of physical activity in each domain was: leisure-time (69.8%), occupational (58.3%), housework (35.0%), transportation (51.9%). Subjects with a transport-related physical activity score equal to or above 150 min/wk were 40% less likely to be sedentary in leisure-time in comparison with those who did not practice transport-related physical activity. Housework and occupational physical activity were not related to participation in LTPA.

Conclusions:

Future physical activity campaigns should focus on other domains instead of LTPA alone, particularly supporting transport-related physical activity as a strategy of health promotion.

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Kari Fasting and Mari-Kristin Sisjord

This study attempts to measure quantitative and qualitative dimensions of leisure time in an effort to see how they are related to the sport participation rates of women and men. Using data collected from a sample of 83 women and 128 men—all of whom were employed, married parents—it was found that women did more housework than men did but the time spent on housework did not account for differences in participation rates for either women or men. Most important in explaining participation in sports among women was the average number of hours per week their spouses were away from home in the evenings. On the basis of these findings it was concluded that the quantitative dimensions of leisure were not associated with sport participation rates; however, the qualitative dimensions of leisure were associated with barriers to participation for women but not for men. The data suggested that compared to men, women were less likely to feel they had the freedom to participate in sport. This difference was explained in terms of a combination of factors including differential socialization and different patterns of motivation related to sport participation among women and men.

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Hyuntae Park, Eiji Watanabe, Fumiharu Togo, Sungjin Park, Roy J. Shephard and Yukitoshi Aoyagi

The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese (PAQ-EJ) is a self-administered physical activity questionnaire for elderly Japanese; the authors report here on its repeatability and direct and indirect validity. Reliability was assessed by repeat administration after 1 month. Direct validation was based on accelerometer data collected every 4 s for 1 month in 147 individuals age 65–85 years. Indirect validation against a 10-item Barthel index (activities of daily living [ADL]) was completed in 3,084 individuals age 65–99 years. The test–retest coefficient was high (r = .64–.71). Total and subtotal scores for lower (transportation, housework, and labor) and higher intensity activities (exercise/sports) were significantly correlated with step counts and durations of physical activity <3 and ≥3 METs (r = .41, .28, .53), respectively. Controlling for age and ADL, scores for transportation, exercise/sports, and labor were greater in men, but women performed more housework. Sex- and ADL- or age-adjusted PAQ-EJ scores were significantly lower in older and dependent people. PAQ-EJ repeatability and validity seem comparable to those of instruments used in Western epidemiological studies.

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Sam Zizzi, Dave Goodrich, Ying Wu, Lindsey Parker, Sheila Rye, Vivek Pawar, Carol Mangone and Irene Tessaro

Although much has been learned about the global determinants of physical activity in adults, there has been a lack of specific focus on gender, age, and urban/rural differences. In this church-based community sample of Appalachian adults (N = 1,239), the primary correlates of physical activity included age, gender, obesity, and self-efficacy. Overall, 42% of all participants and 31% of adults age 65 years or older met recommended guidelines for physical activity, which suggests that most participants do not engage in adequate levels of physical activity. Of participants who met physical activity guidelines, the most common modes of moderate and vigorous activity were walking briskly or uphill, heavy housework or gardening, light strength training, and biking. These particular activities that focus on building self-efficacy might be viable targets for intervention among older adults in rural communities.

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J. Jimenez-Pardo, J.D. Holmes, M.E. Jenkins and A.M. Johnson

Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.

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Eric B. Hekler, Matthew P. Buman, William L. Haskell, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr and Abby C. King

Background:

Recent research highlights the potential value of differentiating between categories of physical activity intensities as predictors of health and well-being. This study sought to assess reliability and concurrent validity of sedentary (ie, 1 METs), low-light (ie, >1 and ≤2 METs; eg, playing cards), high-light (ie, >2 and <3 METs; eg, light walking), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥3 METs), and “total activity” (≥2 METs) from the CHAMPS survey. Further, this study explored over-reporting and double-reporting.

Methods:

CHAMPS data were gathered from the Seniors Neighborhood Quality of Life Study, an observational study of adults aged 65+ years conducted in 2 US regions.

Results:

Participants (N = 870) were 75.3 ± 6.8 years old, with 56% women and 71% white. The CHAMPS sedentary, low-light, high-light, total activity, and MVPA variables had acceptable test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.56−0.70). The CHAMPS high-light (ρ = 0.27), total activity (ρ = 0.34), and MVPA (ρ = 0.37) duration scales were moderately associated with accelerometry minutes of corresponding intensity, and the sedentary scale (ρ = 0.12) had a lower, but significant correlation. Results suggested that several CHAMPS items may be susceptible to over-reporting (eg, walking, housework).

Conclusions:

CHAMPS items effectively measured high-light, total activity, and MVPA in seniors, but further refinement is needed for sedentary and low-light activity.

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Pedro C. Hallal, Luis Fernando Gomez, Diana C. Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Janeth Mosquera, Alex A. Florindo, Rodrigo S. Reis, Michael Pratt and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background:

To describe the lessons learned after 10 years of use of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Brazil and Colombia, with special emphasis on recommendations for future research in Latin America using this instrument.

Methods:

We present an analytical commentary, based on data from a review of the Latin American literature, as well as expert consultation and the authors' experience in administering IPAQ to over 43,000 individuals in Brazil and Colombia between 1998 and 2008.

Results:

Validation studies in Latin America suggest that the IPAQ has high reliability and moderate criteria validity in comparison with accelerometers. Cognitive interviews suggested that the occupational and housework sections of the long IPAQ lead to confusion among respondents, and there is evidence that these sections generate overestimated scores of physical activity. Because the short IPAQ considers the 4 physical activity domains altogether, people tend to provide inaccurate answers to it as well.

Conclusions:

Use of the leisure-time and transport sections of the long IPAQ is recommended for surveillance and studies aimed at documenting physical activity levels in Latin America. Use of the short IPAQ should be avoided, except for maintaining consistency in surveillance when it has already been used at baseline.

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Maura Reilly, Guadalupe X. Ayala, John P. Elder and Kevin Patrick

Background:

Research suggests that individuals who talk with their physicians about lifestyle behaviors are more physically active. Research on this topic is limited in the U.S. Latino population. This study examines doctor-patient communication from the perspective of enrollees in a physical activity (PA) intervention.

Methods:

Three hundred and eighty-seven Latinos were surveyed at program enrollment. Analysis examined the extent to which physician communication about healthy lifestyles and weight was associated with self-reported PA, including leisure-time PA (LTPA), transportation PA (TPA), and occupational PA (OPA). Physician communication included asking, advising, and assisting.

Results:

Most of the respondents reported no LTPA (46%) and no TPA (60%). The percent reporting no occupational activity, which included housework if a homemaker, was lower at 36%. Greater physician assistance was associated with a greater likelihood of doing any LTPA (P ≤ .05). A similar trend was observed for TPA (P ≤ .10).

Conclusions:

Latinos who reported physician assistance to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors reported more LTPA. Providers who assist their patients in obtaining resources to support PA have the potential to increase levels of PA.

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Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Estelle V. Lambert, Judith Biletnikoff Harkins and Ulf Ekelund

The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in older South African adults. The YPAS includes measures of weekly energy expenditure (EE) for housework, yard work, caregiving, exercise, and recreation. The IPAQ measures total time and EE during vigorous and moderate activity, walking, and sitting. The instruments were administered twice for test–retest reliability (men, n = 52, 68 ± 5.4 years, and women, n = 70, 66 ± 5.8 years). Data for criterion validity were obtained from accelerometers. YPAS reliability ranged from r = .44 to.80 for men and r = .59 to .99 for women (p < .0001). IPAQ reliability was lower for men (r = .29 to .76) than for women (r = .46 to .77). Criterion validity of the YPAS was .31 to .54 for men and .26 to .29 for women. The YPAS and short IPAQ had comparable results for reliability and criterion validity.