By integrating social identity theory with brand personality, the authors test a model of how perceptions of human brands affect consumer’s level of cognitive identification. The findings suggest that consumers view athletes as human brands with unique personalities. Additional findings demonstrate that athlete prestige and distinctiveness leads to the evaluation of athlete identification. Once consumers identified with the athlete, they were more likely to feel an emotional attachment to the athlete, identify with the athlete’s team, purchase team-related paraphernalia and increase their team-related viewership habits. The findings extend previous research on human brands and brand personalities in sports. Marketers can use the information gleaned from this study to better promote products that are closely associated with well-recognized and attractive athletes, thereby increasing consumer retail spending. In addition, the findings offer new insights to sports marketers seeking to increase team-related spectatorship by promoting the image of easily recognizable athletes.
Brad D. Carlson and D. Todd Donavan
negative publicity. Theoretical Background Negativity Bias The strategic management of human brands, such as celebrity athletes, has been increasingly highlighted in recent scholarship as well-branded celebrities can generate powerful returns on investments for brand managers ( Carlson & Donavan, 2013
Patrick Walsh and Antonio Williams
While athletes have been building and leveraging their brands for many years by introducing brand extensions, research on sport brand extensions has primarily focused on factors that influence the success of team-related extensions. However, as there is potential risk involved when introducing brand extensions, it is important for athletes to understand how consumers respond to extensions they may introduce. Through the use of self-administered web-based surveys this study provides the initial examination of this topic by exposing participants (n = 292) to hypothetical brand extensions and investigating factors that may influence perceived fit and attitudes toward athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares path modeling suggests that athlete prestige had the most significant effect on fit and attitudes for a brand extension that is considered to be a fit with an athlete’s image, while athlete attachment had the most influence on fit and attitudes for a brand extension with low perceived fit.
Elsa Kristiansen and Antonio S. Williams
This article explored how a renowned LPGA golfer, Suzann Pettersen, has built and leveraged her personal brand. Using the athlete brand-equity model as the theoretical framework, a qualitative case study was built by means of interviews and document analyses. Specifically, this case detailed how Pettersen and her management team endeavored to build and manage her personal brand equity through organization-produced and -controlled brand-communications strategies. The findings of this case shed light on the challenges and opportunities that athletes and their constituents face when managing human brands. Moreover, the findings of this case support the use of previously proposed sport-branding conceptualizations in a real-world setting.
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson
brand managers, there has been an increasing focus on the strategic management of human brands ( Geurin, 2017 ). Research suggests that, among many types of celebrities, athletes produce high levels of tangible and intangible values, such as constant stock-returns effects and image development for firms
Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang
beyond bringing profit to themselves or the organization they work in. Similarly, Thomson ( 2006 ) stated that connections with human brands imply a bona fide human being (e.g., David Beckham) and not an inanimate object (e.g., book). To this end, the off-field image of an athlete is related to his
T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn
). Selected effects of salesperson sex and attractiveness in direct mail advertisements . Journal of Marketing, 48 , 94 – 100 . doi:10.2307/1251315 10.1177/002224298404800110 Carlson , B.D. , & Donavan , D.T. ( 2013 ). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification . Journal of
. Annual Review of Psychology, 62 , 391 – 417 . PubMed doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131609 10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131609 Carlson , B.D. , & Donavan , D.T. ( 2013 ). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification . Journal of Sport Management, 27 , 193 – 206 . doi
Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim
.D. , & Donavan , T.D. ( 2013 ). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification . Journal of Sport Management, 27 ( 3 ), 193 – 206 . doi: 10.1123/jsm.27.3.193 Carter , T.J. , & Gilovich , T. ( 2012 ). I am what I do, not what I have: The differential centrality of experiential and
Ben Larkin, Brendan Dwyer and Chad Goebert
, 154 – 162 . Carlson , B.D. , & Donavan , D.T. ( 2013 ). Human brands in sport: Athlete brand personality and identification . Journal of Sport Management, 27, 193 – 206 . doi: 10.1123/jsm.27.3.193 Carpenter , T. , Pogacar , R. , Pullig , C. , Kouril , M. , LaBouff , J. , Aguilar