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Mark S. Dyreson

component in efforts to unravel the riddle of optimization. A consensus has developed among scholars of human evolution that locomotion—in particular, the ability to run, jog, stroll, gambol, and so forth over long distances, even in the equatorial heat of the East African savannah—resides at the core of

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William R. Leonard

This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

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Rose M. Angell, Stephen A. Butterfield, Shihfen Tu, E. Michael Loovis, Craig A. Mason, and Christopher J. Nightingale

performance . Psychological Bulletin, 98 , 260 – 282 . PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.260 10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.260 Thomas , J.R. , & Marzke , M.W. ( 1992 ). The development of gender difference in throwing: Is human evolution a factor? In R.W. Christina & H.M. Eckert (Eds.), Enhancing

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understandings of human evolution and variation, and quite often to establish discriminatory beliefs about race and gender. Paulina A. Rodríguez is a PhD candidate in History and Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies at Pennsylvania State University, where she specializes in twentieth century American history

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Scott Kretchmar

subdiscipline of biomechanics. However paradoxically, the opposite lies closer to the truth. I learned this when I began looking at research on the possible role of games and play in human evolution. I began reading in Darwinian theory, anthropology, the origins of language, biological evolution, and so on. I

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Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois, and Jan Boone

Z1 will be more pronounced. In this context, it has also been shown in an elite rower that PYR was used at a young age, whereas TID evolved to POL at the age of peak performance. 45 Considerations for a More Holistic Approach We can conclude that based on human evolution and the nature of biological

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Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price, and Eduardo B. Fontes

control deficits in individuals with SUD. Physical exercise is fundamentally important in the evolutionary history of human beings ( Bramble & Lieberman, 2004 ), aiding survival in hunter-gatherer societies. Findings have demonstrated that levels of cardiorespiratory fitness during human evolution are

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David I. Anderson

control and learning (pp.  3 – 45 ). Amsterdam, the Netherlands : Elsevier . 10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61681-7 Alexander , F.M . ( 1918 ). Man’s supreme inheritance: Conscious guidance and control in relation to human evolution . New York, NY : E.P. Dutton & Co . Alexander , F.M . ( 1932 ). The use

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Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen, and Danielle Mounfield

doi:10.1093/humrep/13.11.3000 10.1093/humrep/13.11.3000 Manning , J.T. , & Taylor , R.P. ( 2001 ). Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: Implications for sexual selection in humans . Evolution and Human behavior, 22 ( 1 ), 61 – 69 . PubMed ID: 11182575 doi:10.1016/S1090

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Blandine Bril

development (pp.  393 – 429 ). Marwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Nonaka , T. , Bril , B. , & Rein , R. ( 2010 ). How do stone knappers predict and control the outcome of flaking? Implication for understanding early stone tool technology . Journal of Human Evolution, 59 ( 2 ), 155 – 167