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Physical Literacy and Human Flourishing

Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers, Margaret E. Whitehead, and Niek Pot

literacy is more likely to provide a meaningful learning experience as an outcome of the nurturing of an individual’s embodied capability. Through the intentional action to develop an individual’s embodied capability, the maximization of human potential may be encouraged, thus nurturing certain goods and

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Adolescent Performers’ Perspectives on Mental Toughness and Its Development: The Utility of the Bioecological Model

John W. Mahoney, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Clifford J. Mallett, and Nikos Ntoumanis

In light of the extant literature, the aim of the current study was to compare adolescents’ perspectives on mental toughness and its development across performance contexts, and to explore if such perspectives align with Bronfenbrenner’s (2001) bioecological model. Eighteen mentally tough adolescents (9 boys, 9 girls, Mage = 15.6 years) from three performance contexts (i.e., sport, academia, and music) participated in focus groups, 7 of whom also participated in follow-up one-to-one interviews. Inductive analyses revealed that mental toughness was conceptualized by 9 personal characteristics, and that while similar across performance contexts, some difference between previous mental toughness conceptualization and the current study existed. Analyses also revealed that mental toughness development was predicated on significant others, supportive social processes, critical incidents, and curiosity. These findings resonated with the properties of the bioecological model. Future research into how bioecological factors combine to facilitate mental toughness development during critical stages of life was suggested.

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Qualitative Insights on the Importance of Sociocultural Contexts on Asian Indian Migrant Participation in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

Siona Fernandes, Erica Hinckson, and Justin Richards

Background: Influences on physical activity and sedentary behavior may differ for migrants moving from their country of origin to a new country. This study aimed to explore the range of contextual factors that influence physical activity and sedentary behavior among Indian migrants, making comparisons with India. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 Indian migrants (10 men and 11 women) aged between 18 and 65 years living in Melbourne, Australia. Data were analyzed thematically, coded inductively, and managed with NVivo. Results: Participants perceived a lack of social connection as a key barrier to physical activity participation. Group-based physical activity fostered social connections. Cultural associations were sites to engage in cultural physical activity and integrate with other Indians. Australia’s physical contexts (eg, availability of facilities and built environment) facilitated physical activity behavior. Workplace environments (eg, the nature of the job) prompted sedentary behavior. Other contextual shifts with migration related to activities of daily living (eg, shifts in transport [walking] behavior in India to a greater reliance on cars in Australia) and migrant-friendly health communication (messaging from Australian health/allied health practitioners). Conclusions: Sociocultural contexts remain key influences on migrant physical activity participation. Prioritizing integrated approaches and engaging insider codesign are important in tailoring and promoting migrant physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior.

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Children With Cardiac Disease and Heat Exposure: Catastrophic Converging Consequences?

Luc Souilla, Pascal Amedro, and Shawnda A. Morrison

The detrimental impact of extreme heat exposure on the health and well-being of children is widely acknowledged. The direct and indirect effects of climate change have led to an increased risk of certain cardiovascular events which may be particularly harmful to children who are born with, or develop, heart disease. Purpose: To highlight the worrying paucity of investigative research aimed at differentiating how higher ambient temperatures further tax an already compromised cardiovascular system in children. Methods: This commentary describes basic thermoregulatory concepts relevant to the healthy pediatric population and summarizes common heart diseases observed in this population. Results: We describe how heat stress and exercise are important factors clinicians should more readily consider when treating children with heart disease. Countermeasures to physical inactivity are suggested for children, parents, clinicians, and policymakers to consider. Conclusions: As sudden, excessive heat exposures continue to impact our rapidly warming world, vulnerable populations like children with underlying heart conditions are at greater heat health risk, especially when coupled with the negative physical activity and fitness trends observed worldwide.

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Continuous Thermoregulatory Responses to a Mass-Participation 89-km Ultramarathon Road Race

Christopher Byrne, Aurelien Cosnefroy, Roger Eston, Jason K.W. Lee, and Tim Noakes

Purpose: To continuously measure body core temperature (T c) throughout a mass-participation ultramarathon in subelite recreational runners to quantify T c magnitude and the influence of aerobic fitness and body fat. Methods: Twenty-three participants (19 men and 4 women; age 45 [9] y; body mass 72.0 [9.3] kg; body fat 26% [6%]; peak oxygen uptake 50 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) had gastrointestinal temperature measured during an 89-km ultramarathon. Prerace-to-postrace changes in body mass, plasma sodium, and fluid and food recall quantified body water balance. Results: In maximal environmental conditions of 26.3 °C and 53% humidity, 21 of the 23 participants finished in 10:28 (01:10) h:min while replacing 49% (27%) of sweat losses, maintaining plasma sodium (140 [3] mmol·L−1), and dehydrating by 4.1% (1.3%). Mean maximum T c was 39.0 (0.5) (range 38.2–40.1 °C) with 90% of race duration ≤39.0 °C. Mean maximum ΔT c was 1.9 (0.9) (0.9–2.7 °C) with 95% of race duration ≤2.0 °C. Over 0 to 45 km, associations between ΔT c and peak oxygen uptake (positive) and body fat (negative) were observed. Over 58 to 89 km, associations between T c and peak oxygen uptake (negative) and body fat (positive) were observed. Conclusions: Modest T c responses were observed in recreational ultramarathon runners. Runners with higher levels of aerobic fitness and lower levels of body fat demonstrated the greatest changes in T c during the first half of the race. Conversely, runners with lower levels of aerobic fitness and higher levels of body fat demonstrated the greatest absolute T c in the final third of the race.

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Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Cardiovascular Health in 6-Year-Old Children Born to Mothers With Increased Cardiometabolic Risk

Linda Litwin, Johnny K.M. Sundholm, Rasmus F.W. Olander, Jelena Meinilä, Janne Kulmala, Tuija H. Tammelin, Kristiina Rönö, Saila B. Koivusalo, Johan G. Eriksson, and Taisto Sarkola

Purpose: To assess associations between sedentary time (ST), physical activity (PA), and cardiovascular health in early childhood. Method: Cross-sectional study including 160 children (age 6.1 y [SD 0.5], 86 boys, 93 maternal body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, and 73 gestational diabetes) assessed for pulse wave velocity, echocardiography, ultra-high frequency 48–70 MHz vascular ultrasound, and accelerometery. Results: Boys had 385 (SD 53) minutes per day ST, 305 (SD 44) minutes per day light PA, and 81 (SD 22) minutes per day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Girls had 415 (SD 50) minutes per day ST, 283 (SD 40) minutes per day light PA, and 66 (SD 19) minutes per day MVPA. In adjusted analyses, MVPA was inversely associated with resting heart rate (β = −6.6; 95% confidence interval, −12.5 to −0.7) and positively associated with left ventricular mass (β = 6.8; 1.4–12.3), radial intima-media thickness (β = 11.4; 5.4–17.5), brachial intima-media thickness (β = 8.0; 2.0–14.0), and femoral intima-media thickness (β = 1.3; 0.2–2.3). MVPA was inversely associated with body fat percentage (β = −3.4; −6.6 to −0.2), diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.05; −0.8 to −0.1), and femoral (β = −18.1; −32.4 to −0.8) and radial (β = −13.4; −24.0 to −2.9) circumferential wall stress in boys only. ST and pulse wave velocity showed no significant associations. Conclusions: In young at-risk children, MVPA is associated with cardiovascular remodeling, partly in a sex-dependant way, likely representing physiological adaptation, but ST shows no association with cardiovascular health in early childhood.

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Homophobia, the World of Sport, and Sport Psychology Consulting

Robert J. Rotella and Mi Mi Murray

Homophobia has been an issue of concern in the world of sport for decades. It has had a negative impact on the world of athletes, coaches, and sport psychology consultants. Both heterosexuals and homosexuals are affected. Homophobia has kept some from striving for excellence while interfering with and hindering some who pursued success in sport. Specialists in sport psychology who claim to care about the development of human potential in sport must be concerned about the impact of homophobia. An honest look at attitudes, beliefs, and values is a necessary step forward if change is to occur. A move in the direction of healthy acceptance of differing sexual preferences is suggested, along with an effective philosophy for doing so. A wish list for the future is included.

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Difference, Adapted Physical Activity and Human Development: Potential Contribution of Capabilities Approach

Carla Filomena Silva and P. David Howe

This paper is a call to Adapted Physical Activity (APA) professionals to increase the reflexive nature of their practice. Drawing upon Foucault’s concept of governmentality (1977) APA action may work against its own publicized goals of empowerment and self-determination. To highlight these inconsistencies, we will draw upon historical and social factors that explain the implicit dangers of practice not following policy. We propose that APA practitioners work according to ethical guidelines, based upon a capabilities approach (Nussbaum, 2006, 2011; Sen, 2009) to counteract possible adverse effects of APA practitioner action. A capabilities approach is conducive to the development of each individual’s human potential, by holistically considering the consequences of physical activity (i.e., biological, cultural, social, and psychological dimensions). To conclude, this paper will offer suggestions that may lead to an ethical reflection aligned with the best interest of APA’s users.

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Emotional Intelligence and Physical Activity

Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

. 7 , 8 Although considerable advances have been attained, our understanding of the personal resources and dynamic motivating one to adhere to an active lifestyle is still partial at best. A relatively new concept that may shed new light on human potentials, processes, and factors associated with PA

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Consultancy Under Pressure: Intervening in the “Here and Now” With an Elite Golfer

John Pates and Kieran Kingston

-established approaches. The first, transpersonal psychology, focuses on developing human potential using interventions that target peak experiences and altered states of consciousness (see Lajoie & Shapiro, 1992 ). Psychological interventions associated with transpersonal therapy, namely, music and hypnosis (see Davis