The field of sport-for-development (SFD) has grown substantially in recent years ( Schulenkorf, Sherry, & Rowe, 2016 ). As a result, various forms of interorganizational relationships (IORs) and hybrid organizations have emerged in response to opportunities for organizations and stakeholder groups
Katherine Raw, Emma Sherry and Katie Rowe
Marlene A. Dixon and Per G. Svensson
, Raynard, Kodeih, Micelotta, & Lounsbury, 2011 ). Examining how a nascent SDP organization responds to institutional complexity is essential to advancing SDP theory and practice. The case organization presented in this study responded to this complexity through a process of organizational hybridity, much
Cláudio Filipe Farias, Isabel Ribeiro Mesquita and Peter A. Hastie
The impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (IGCM) unit of instruction on students’ game performance and game understanding in soccer was examined in this study. Pre- and posttest measures were collected from one fifth grade class of students (n = 24, mean age 10.3) residing in Portugal during a 17-lesson unit of instruction (season). Students’ game performance during multiple 10-min long matches was assessed using the coding instrument of Blomqvist, Vänttinen, and Luhtanen (2005). An author developed game understanding test was used to assess knowledge on decision making and skill execution. Performance differences between males and females were examined using the Mann-Whitney test and student improvement pre- to poststudy was examined using the Wilcoxon test. The combined application of Sport Education (authentic learning environment) and the IGCM (with learning tasks focused on the specific tactical-content and skills of soccer) promoted improvements in students’ game performance and understanding, and increments on the correlations between both constructs.
Per G. Svensson and Chad S. Seifried
Sport leaders are redefining organizational paradigms by blending elements from traditional forms of organizing. Leaders of emergent hybrid forms face unique challenges in managing tensions associated with the paradoxical elements they embody. This paper introduces the concept of hybrid organizing and examines its applicability to Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Specifically, Battilana and Lee’s (2014) multidimensional framework is used to examine the core practices, workforce composition, organizational design, interorganizational relationships, and organizational culture of hybrid SDP entities. Findings from this exploratory empirical work with nine organizations indicate SDP hybrids operate under a multitude of legal structures yet are underlined by shared beliefs that these new forms provide better opportunities for achieving social impact and organizational sustainability. Organizational leaders appear to use a multitude of internal mechanisms for managing the seemingly paradoxical nature of hybrid organizing. Strengths and challenges associated with these efforts were revealed and are critically examined.
Ryan Charles Luke and Jaye K. Luke
At many institutions introductory exercise physiology courses are required for all kinesiology students. The laboratory portion of these courses usually involves development of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) connected with content presented in lecture. Due to scalability issues, the Kinesiology Department at California State University Monterey Bay cannot offer traditional laboratory experiences. Therefore, online and hybrid laboratory experiences were created to provide similar opportunities for students, address scalability issues, and enhance student engagement and learning. Creation of these carefully crafted laboratory experiences allowed instructors to (a) highlight and explain key foundational principles, (b) provide experiences involving practical application of material presented in lecture, and (c) present students with additional learning experiences while maintaining high learner expectations. The following article outlines the process used to create these virtual laboratory experiences for students in an undergraduate introductory exercise physiology course.
Kurt Manal, Justin D. Cowder and Thomas S. Buchanan
In this article, we outline a method for computing Achilles tendon moment arm. The moment arm is computed from data collected using two reliable measurement instruments: ultrasound and video-based motion capture. Ultrasound is used to measure the perpendicular distance from the surface of the skin to the midline of the tendon. Motion capture is used to determine the perpendicular distance from the bottom of the probe to the ankle joint center. The difference between these two measures is the Achilles tendon moment arm. Unlike other methods, which require an angular change in joint position to approximate the moment arm, the hybrid method can be used to compute the moment arm directly at a specific joint angle. As a result, the hybrid method involves fewer error-prone measurements and the moment arm can be computed at the limits of the joint range of motion. The method is easy to implement and uses modalities that are less costly and more accessible than MRI. Preliminary testing using a lamb shank as a surrogate for a human ankle revealed good accuracy (3.3% error). We believe the hybrid method outlined here can be used to measure subject-specific moment arms in vivo and thus will potentially benefit research projects investigating ankle mechanics.
Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
Millennial college students are typically digital natives who prefer experiential and active learning. This preference is in contrast to the traditional lecture method of teaching in higher education. Flipped instruction provides instructors with a means to integrate technology into their courses and expand active-learning opportunities. In flipped courses, students engage with technology-assisted learning opportunities outside the classroom. Corresponding in-class active-learning opportunities encourage students to apply foundational knowledge. This article summarizes research and provides an authentic case example to illustrate the way in which flipped instruction was applied in a physical education teacher education course to expand learning opportunities in the field.
Javier Fernandez-Rio and Jose Ignacio Menendez-Santurio
The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers’ perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility.
Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers agreed to participate. Several instruments were used to collect data: (a) an open-ended question, (b) Photovoice, (c) teacher and external observers’ diaries, and (d) semistructured interviews. MAXQDA 11 software was used to assist with data management, with all participants’ answers being analyzed via thematic content analysis.
Analysis of the data produced 11 themes, three considered strong: responsibility, learning and roles, five considered moderate: enjoyment, teaching, competition, cooperation and novelty, and three considered weak: friendship, affiliation and transfer.
These findings indicated that the hybridization of the two pedagogical models seems to help increase both social and personal responsibility and to provide students with meaningful sporting experiences.
Brett Hutchins, David Rowe and Andy Ruddock
MyFootballClub (MFC) is a popular computer game, Web site, online networking experiment, business model, and an actual soccer club. This article uses MFC to address the question of how networked media sport is reshaping the media sports cultural complex (Rowe, 2004). Our aim is to show how the professionalization and mediatization of sport has created a longing to reconstruct a kind of communitas around supporter participation in the ownership and running of their team. We conclude by suggesting that it is now time to think less in terms of the longstanding relationship between sport and media, and more about sport as media given the increasing interpenetration of digital media content, sport, and networked information and communications technologies.
Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroyuki Sakata and Yoshiyuki Kobayashi
step length, m Step frequency– t race , r Step length– t race , r Type UTT 1 12 11.23 (0.18) 4.59 (0.09) 1.94 (0.03) −.630* −.303 Step frequency–reliant UTT 2 14 11.27 (0.19) 4.32 (0.09) 2.05 (0.03) −.652* −0.115 Step frequency–reliant UTT 3 15 11.03 (0.28) 4.47 (0.18) 2.03 (0.08) −.250 −.340 Hybrid