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Masato Kawabata and Rachel Evans

The present study examined the extent to which scores on the Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) could differentiate individuals who experienced flow characteristics in physical activity from those who did not. A total of 1,048 participants completed the Japanese version of the FSS-2. Latent class factor analysis (LCFA), which combines the strengths of both latent class analysis and factor analysis, was conducted on the FSS-2 responses. Four classes were identified through a series of LCFAs and the patterns of the item-average scores for the nine flow attributes were found parallel among these classes. The top two classes (15.1% and 38.9% of the whole sample) were considered the groups who experienced flow characteristics during their physical activities. These results indicated that individuals who experienced flow attributes in physical activity could be differentiated from those who did not based on their FSS-2 scores. Criteria for classifying individuals into the two groups were proposed.

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Matt W. Boulter, James Hardy, Ross Roberts, and Tim Woodman

 al., 2014 ). To test our hypotheses, we applied hybrid modeling and used a conditional indirect effect approach. Hybrid modeling allows for the inclusion of measurement error with variables while maintaining an observed variable model ( Wang & Wang, 2012 ). This approach therefore allows researchers the

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Svenja Wachsmuth, Johannes Raabe, Tucker Readdy, Damir Dugandzic, and Oliver Höner

to be considered. To this end, a hybrid model of coach education was thought to simultaneously support coaches’ autonomous and self-paced learning by providing online materials and promote interactive and reflective learning during group-based activities facilitated by the coordinators within “in

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Anna Woch and Réjean Plamondon

This article reviews the current status of the movement primitives problem, especially the question of their description and identification, and points out some challenges that are stillwhich remain unsolved by the approaches that are frequently adopted to study human movements. We use the framework of the kinematic theory proposed by Plamondon (1995 and 1998) as an example of a hybrid model thatthat allows a precise and flexible quantitative description of human movements. It is shown that the theory can be used to encompass the various types of rapid movement encountered in the field. Namely, tThe principal aim of this article is to highlight the fact that the notion of movement primitive movements should not necessarily be confined to movements with a single velocity peak, as it is still often assumed in many models. The model allows, for example, a simple description of a movement primitivethat, which might contain up to two direction reversals.

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Pierre-Alban Lebecq, Yves Moralès, Jean Saint-Martin, Yves Travaillot, and Natalia Bazoge

Swedish gymnastics has been reduced to a directory of progressive analytical movements intended to form the basis of what is known in French physical education as a global gymnastics. This article explains how Philippe Tissié was inspired by Swedish gymnastics in his development of a hybrid vision between the Swedish method of physical education and the French model that was largely derived from the works of Jean Saint-Martin Amoros and Philippe Sarremejane. The paper demonstrates how Tissié’s French gymnastics was not only limited to analytical movements but also included the practice of sports. At the same time, it explains how the creation of this hybrid model meshed scientific findings from life sciences (biology and physiology) with human and social sciences (psychology and sociology). Between 1886 and 1935, Tissié’s appropriation, thus, enabled him to structure his conceptions of physical education and to move from the Swedish to the Franco-Swedish method.

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Alexander Gil-Arias, Stephen Harvey, Óscar M. Morante, Fernando Claver, and Javier Fernández-Río

teaching units. Students’ Enthusiasm and Involvement Autonomy A traditional teaching approach is characterized by teacher-controlled decisions, where students follow the teacher’s directions. In contrast, hybrid model aimed to give greater prominence to the students and their autonomy, specifically through

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Irene Rocamora, Ashley Casey, Sixto González-Víllora, and Natalia María Arias-Palencia

to PE via the hybridization of existing models (see Casey & Dyson, 2009 ; Hastie & Mesquita, 2016 ). In their systematic review of hybridizing PMs, González-Víllora et al. ( 2019 ) identified 20 articles of moderate/high quality that reported on the use of hybrid models. This review highlights the

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Marlene A. Dixon and Per G. Svensson

of hybrid models for responding to divergent institutional demands and in understanding the tensions and internal dynamics in the structure, management, and maintenance of organizations undergoing hybridization processes ( Svensson, 2017 ; Svensson & Seifried, 2017 ). Now, empirical research is

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Kayla Baker, Melissa Bopp, Sean M. Bulger, YuChun Chen, Michele L. Duffey, Brian Myers, Dana K. Voelker, and Kaylee F. Woodard

, interactions, and other learning checks. Students are required to access and complete the online modules as an entrance requirement for each face-to-face class session. By transitioning to the hybrid model, seminar instructors are empowered to engage students using active learning strategies in the classroom

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W. James (Jim) Weese

more effectively delivered in virtual or a hybrid model (i.e., virtual, and face-to-face delivery). A case can be made for integrating more digital technologies (e.g., remote delivery, holograms) into our teaching programs. Levin, Rapanta et al., and Govindarajan et al. concluded that the digital path