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Leou-Chyr Lin, Thomas P. Hedman, Shyu-Jye Wang, Michael Huoh and Shih-Youeng Chuang

The goal of this study was to develop a nondestructive radial compression technique and to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of the rat tail disc under repeated radial compression. Rat tail intervertebral disc underwent radial compression relaxation testing and creep testing using a custom-made gravitational creep machine. The axisymmetric viscoelasticity and time-dependent recovery were determined. Different levels of hydration (with or without normal saline spray) were supplied to evaluate the effect of changes in viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity was found to be axisymmetric in rat-tail intervertebral discs at four equidistant locations. Complete relaxation recovery was found to take 20 min, whereas creep recovery required 25 min. Hydration was required for obtaining viscoelastic axisymmetry and complete viscoelastic recovery.

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

after exercise abolished PEH. Endo et al 10 showed that oral water intake during exercise also prevented PEH. Thus, these results suggest that intentional hydration may not be recommended when PEH is desirable. However, these studies have employed intravenous infusion 9 or have evaluated PEH in the

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Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano

hydration status of the subjects exercising in the heat 4 – 8 and it is well known that hydration status impacts physiological and performance responses in the heat. 9 Some of the physiological responses that are desired to elicit heat acclimation (ie, higher heart rate and internal body temperature) are

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

There is no lack of information from the scientific community in regard to hydration advice for athletes ( Cheuvront et al., 2003 ; Cheuvront et al., 2007 ; Maughan & Shirreffs, 2008 ; Shirreffs et al., 2004 ), with significant evolutions in prominent position stands across time ( Casa et

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

across the remainder of the day or next-morning hydration status (urine specific gravity [U SG ]). Hence, it was concluded that recovery stations served to promote positive lifestyle behaviors in recreational athletes. Food/fluid items within recovery stations are not standardized, and providing

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

-intensity activity 5 over a short time (∼60 min practice) can prevent ice hockey players from consuming enough fluids to match sweat loss, 2 , 4 resulting in dehydration during activity. Other factors, such as a blunted thirst response due to the cool environment 6 and travel, 7 can also impact hydration. The

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

hypohydration (2% body mass reduction) the previous day ( MacLeod & Sunderland, 2012 ). Thus, it is important to understand session-to-session hydration status so athletes can adequately replenish fluids and be fully rehydrated the next day ( Shirreffs, 2005 ). Field-based assessment techniques need to

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

Sports Medicine’s fluid replacement statement, 2 discusses the effects caffeine and alcohol can have on hydration. Alcohol inhibits antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to increased urine production and hypohydration. 3 Alcohol use in college athletes is higher than the general student population and

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Emily C. Borden, William J. Kraemer, Bryant J. Walrod, Emily M. Post, Lydia K. Caldwell, Matthew K. Beeler, William H. DuPont, John Paul Anders, Emily R. Martini, Jeff S. Volek and Carl M. Maresh

NCAA has identified a urine-specific gravity (USG) value of less than or equal to 1.020 g/cm 3 as an indicator of proper hydration. Any value that is greater than 1.020 g/cm 3 is considered “failed,” and the wrestler must be retested no sooner than 24 hours after the initial assessment. USG has been

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

condition. Many EHS-prevention strategies have been adopted to enhance exercise heat tolerance, but not necessarily to decrease the incidence of EHS ( Alhadad, Tan, & Lee, 2019 ). Some examples of common strategies to enhance exercise heat tolerance include heat acclimatization (HA), hydration, work