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Brian D. Tran and Pietro Galassetti

The beneficial effects of exercise, including reduction of cardiovascular risk, are especially important in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), in whom incidence of lifetime cardiovascular complications remains elevated despite good glycemic control. Being able to exercise safely is therefore a paramount concern. Dysregulated metabolism in T1DM however, causes frequent occurrence of both hypo- and hyperglycemia, the former typically associated with prolonged, moderate exercise, the latter with higher intensity, if shorter, challenges. While very few absolute contraindications to exercising exist in these children, exercise should not be started with glycemia outside the 80–250 mg/dl range. Within this glycemic range, careful adjustments in insulin administration (reduction or infusion rate via insulin pumps, or overall reduction of dosage of multiple injections) should be combined with carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise, based on prior, individual experience with specific exercise formats. Unfamiliar exercise should always be tackled with exceeding caution, based on known responses to other exercise formats. Finally, gaining a deep understanding of other complex exercise responses, such as the modulation of inflammatory status, which is a major determinant of the cardio-protective effects of exercise, can help determine which exercise formats and which individual metabolic conditions can lead to maximally beneficial health effects.

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Yuri A. Freire, Carlos A. Silva, Geovani A. D. Macêdo, Rodrigo A. V. Browne, Bruno M. de Oliveira, George Felipe C. Martins, Luiz F. Farias-Junior, Luciana C. Brito, and Eduardo C. Costa

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by an impaired insulin action or secretion ( Brazilian Diabetes Society, 2016 ). The prevalence of T2D increases mainly from middle age, being prevalent in 20% of older adults ( Cho et al., 2018 ). Complications of T2D are associated

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Stefano Palermi, Anna M. Sacco, Immacolata Belviso, Nastasia Marino, Francesco Gambardella, Carlo Loiacono, and Felice Sirico

10.1111/j.1464-5491.2009.02914.x Maciaszek , J. , & Osiński , W. ( 2015 ). Effect of Tai Chi on the glucose and functional fitness level among elderly men with hyperglycemia . SMAES, 11, 225 . Retrieved from Mak , M.K. , & Ng , P

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Pooja Bhati and M. Ejaz Hussain

the diagnosis of T2DM. 9 Moreover, it is to be noticed that the prevalence of CAN has found to be higher in Asian Indian population (53.2%–63.3%) possibly due to genetic predisposition to CAN and greater hyperglycemia found in this ethnic group. 10 – 12 Though CAN is a common complication of T2DM

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Tiago R. de Lima, David A. González-Chica, Eleonora D’Orsi, Xuemei Sui, and Diego A.S. Silva

for CVD (eg, obesity, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure) or CVD itself (eg, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, stroke) may have a negative impact on MS and its determinants (eg, muscle mass, muscle quality). 12 Thus, it is hypothesized that, when considering health status in the association between

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Sara Knaeps, Stijn De Baere, Jan Bourgois, Evelien Mertens, Ruben Charlier, and Johan Lefevre

Background: The purpose of the current study was to apply a more novel approach to systematically examine (1) associations of clustered cardiometabolic risk and cardiometabolic risk factors and (2) theoretical substitution of sedentary time with either sleep, light physical activity (LPA), or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and substituting LPA with MVPA. Methods: Physical activity and sleep were objectively measured in 410 Flemish adults [55.5 (9.6) y, 64% men] with a SenseWear Pro 3 Armband. Cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension) and cardiorespiratory fitness were objectively measured. Isotemporal substitution analyses were performed to assess the associations between substituting time from a potentially negative behavior into another potentially positive behavior. Results: Theoretical substitution of sedentary time with MVPA was associated with decreased clustered cardiometabolic risk, b = −0.06 (−0.08 to −0.04), and substituting LPA with MVPA was associated with a decrease in clustered cardiometabolic risk, b = −0.08 (−0.11 to −0.04). Substituting sedentary time with LPA or sleep improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and waist circumference. Conclusion: Theoretical replacement of sedentary time with either sleep, LPA, or MVPA was positively associated with improved cardiometabolic risk factor status. Interventions for increasing cardiometabolic health can focus on replacing sedentary time with either sleep, LPA, or MVPA depending on the risk parameters that need to be targeted.

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to be between 70 and 180 mg/dl. a. True b. False 2. Moderate and vigorous exercise sessions increase the risk of hyperglycemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. a. True b. False 3. There is significant evidence supporting that the closed-loop control system keeps blood glucose in the ideal range

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Andrzej Gawrecki, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Grzegorz Biegański, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Bogda Skowrońska, Anna Adamska, Dariusz Naskręt, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Agnieszka Szypowska, Tomasz Klupa, and Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz

activity among diabetic patients, it was very important to develop safety rules for players during a mass sports event. The most important goal for medical care was to avoid decompensation of diabetes, that is, severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with ketosis. A greater risk of ketoacidosis occurs in

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Melanie A. Mason, Anne C. Russ, Ryan T. Tierney, and Jamie L. Mansell

considered to be between 70 and 180 mg/dl. 4 , 5 In order to avoid hypo- and hyperglycemia, and stay in the ideal blood glucose range, individuals with Type 1 diabetes must balance physical activity, exercise, carbohydrate intake, and insulin administration. 6 The response of blood glucose to physical

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, and Beatriz D. Schaan

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. The global diabetes estimate for 2045 is 693 million people ( Cho et al., 2018 ). The main treatment target is strict glucose control, since it is associated with a decreased risk of microvascular ( Zoungas et