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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

Hypertension, now defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg, is the most common, costly, and modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor in the United States and world. Hypertension affects 103 million or ∼46% of Americans ( Muntner et

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Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

Hypertension, once thought of as an adult disease, is now one of the most common health concerns for children and a major public health issue ( 21 ). While cardiovascular disease is not present in children, intermediate markers of target organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy

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José Machado Filho, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Hirofumi Tanaka and Rodrigo Ferrari

Hypertension is an important public health problem that affects mainly older individuals ( Picon, Fuchs, Moreira, & Fuchs, 2013 ; Picon, Fuchs, Moreira, Riegel, & Fuchs, 2012 ). Sustained high blood pressure (BP) levels are directly related to vascular and overall mortality. However, a reduction

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Hypertension is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality ( Lotfaliany et al., 2015 ; Mills et al., 2016 ). Despite the efforts of health professionals, the prevalence of hypertension is high worldwide, with 29% in the United States ( Fryar, Ostchega, Hales, Zhang

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Aline Mendes Gerage, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos, Bruna Cadengue Coêlho de Souza and Fábio Araujo Almeida

Hypertension affects 30%–45% of adults worldwide. 1 It is associated with metabolic, functional, and structural changes in a variety of organs and, consequently, leads to a higher risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. 1 , 2 As physical inactivity and unhealthy eating habits are major

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Bruna Camilo Turi, Jamile S. Codogno, Romulo A. Fernandes, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system.

Methods:

963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis.

Results:

Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]).

Conclusions:

The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

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Cuisle O’Donovan, Fiona E. Lithander, Tara Raftery, John Gormley, Azra Mahmud and Juliette Hussey

Background:

Physical activity has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness among healthy adults. There is a lack of data on this relationship in adults with hypertension. The majority of studies which have examined physical activity and arterial stiffness have used subjective measures of activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured habitual physical activity and arterial stiffness in individuals with newly diagnosed essential hypertension.

Methods:

Adults attending an outpatient hypertension clinic were recruited into this cross sectional study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry. Participant’s full lipid profile and glucose were determined through the collection of a fasting blood sample.

Results:

Fifty-three adults [51(14) years, 26 male] participated, 16 of whom had the metabolic syndrome. Inactivity was positively correlated with PWV (r = .53, P < .001) and AIx (r = .48, P < .001). There were significant inverse associations between habitual physical activity of all intensities and both AIx and PWV. In stepwise regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, physical activity was a significant predictor of AIx and PWV.

Conclusion:

Habitual physical activity of all intensities is associated with reduced arterial stiffness among adults with hypertension.

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Michael Sagiv, Amira Sagiv, David Ben-Sira, Jacob Rudoy and Michael Soudry

Hemodynamic and left ventricular systolic function were studied by Doppler echocardiography in 14 young and 15 older adult hypertensive patients and in 15 young and 12 older normotensive individuals. Measures were made at rest and during upright deadlift isometric exercise, at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction for 3 min. At rest, young and older hypertensive patients demonstrated impaired left ventricular systolic function compared to both old and young normotensive subjects. The impaired systolic function was associated with less augmentation in systolic indices during exercise compared with resting values in young and elderly hypertensive patients, and to a lesser degree in the normotensive elderly when compared with young normotensives. These data indicate that at rest, left ventricular systolic function may be compromised in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and, to a lesser extent, in the normotensive elderly. However, other factors in chronic hypertension may contribute to abnormal systolic function and override the effects of aging alone.

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Denise Rodrigues Bueno, Maria de Fátima Nunes Marucci, Clara Suemi da Costa Rosa, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte and Maria Lucia Lebão

prevalence of both arterial hypertension (HBP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) ( Nascimento et al., 2015 ). An insufficient physical activity level (PAL) can result in unfavorable control of these diseases, leading to a significant economic impact related to the associated complications ( Bertoldi et al., 2013

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Johann Auer, Robert Berent, Markus Prenninger, Thomas Weber, Klaus Kritzinger, Martin Veits, Gudrun Lamm, Elisabeth Lassnig and Bernd Eber

Context:

Effects of a single bout of exercise at moderate altitude on blood pressure (BP) are largely unknown.

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of a single exercise bout at moderate altitude on BP.

Design:

Prospective, observational.

Setting:

Field study, Alpine mountains.

Participants:

127 men, 71 women (138 normotensive, 60 hypertensive).

Intervention:

Exercise duration: 2.5 ± 0.4 h; 650-m difference in altitude.

Main Outcome Measures:

BP and heart rate (HR).

Results:

Hypertensives had (1) higher systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) before exercise (P < .01), whereas this difference was lost during exercise; (2) increased HR during the entire duration of exercise; and (3) significantly decreased SBP and DBP (P < .05) throughout the entire period of exercise.

Conclusions:

Exposure to a single exercise bout at moderate altitude is associated with a transient decrease in SBP and DBP, which is more pronounced in hypertensives.