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Jin Hyuck Lee, Ji Soon Park and Woong Kyo Jeong

Key Points ▸ Scapular dyskinesis can be caused by isolated hypertrophy of the serratus anterior, not only the weakness of the serratus anterior and trapezius. ▸ Bilateral shoulder computed tomography seems to be needed in patients with abnormal scapular movement and periscapular muscle spasm to

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Ryan D. Andrews, David A. MacLean and Steven E. Riechman

Variability in protein consumption may influence muscle mass changes induced by resistance exercise training (RET). We sought to administer a post-exercise protein supplement and determine if daily protein intake variability affected variability in muscle mass gains. Men (N = 22) and women (N = 30) ranging in age from 60 to 69 y participated in a 12-wk RET program. At each RET session, participants consumed a post-exercise drink (0.4 g/kg lean mass protein). RET resulted in significant increases in lean mass (1.1 ±1.5 kg), similar between sexes (P > 0.05). Variability in mean daily protein intake was not associated with change in lean mass (r < 0.10, P > 0.05). The group with the highest protein intake (1.35 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 8) had similar (P > 0.05) changes in lean mass as the group with the lowest daily protein intake (0.72 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 9). These data suggest that variability in total daily protein intake does not affect variability in lean mass gains with RET in the context of post-exercise protein supplementation.

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino

effects of sarcopenia and dynapenia, as this population generally possesses lower levels of muscular strength and SMM compared with men ( Brady et al., 2014 ; Hughes et al., 2001 ). Resistance training (RT) is a well-recognized method of exercise for increasing muscular strength and hypertrophy, and thus

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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli

and to enhance muscle recovery after intensive training ( Wilson et al., 2014 ). This may lead to improved training capacity in the subsequent sessions, thereby promoting further hypertrophy and strength gains. However, not all studies show that HMB attenuates muscle damage ( Nunan et al., 2010 ), and

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Akinobu Nishimura, Masaaki Sugita, Ko Kato, Aki Fukuda, Akihiro Sudo and Atsumasa Uchida

Purpose:

Recent studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion (kaatsu training) induces muscle hypertrophy. A local hypoxic environment facilitates muscle hypertrophy during kaatsu training. We postulated that muscle hypertrophy can be more efficiently induced by placing the entire body in a hypoxic environment to induce muscle hypoxia followed by resistance training.

Methods:

Fourteen male university students were randomly assigned to hypoxia (Hyp) and normoxia (Norm) groups (n = 7 per group). Each training session proceeded at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), and comprised four sets of 10 repetitions of elbow extension and fexion. Students exercised twice weekly for 6 wk and then muscle hypertrophy was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and muscle strength was evaluated based on 1RM.

Results:

Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex (exercised fexor of the hypoxia group) than for the Hyp-N (nonexercised fexor of the hypoxia group) or Norm-Ex fexor (P < .05, Bonferroni correction). Muscle hypertrophy was significantly greater for the Hyp-Ex than the Hyp-N extensor. Muscle strength was significantly increased early (by week 3) in the Hyp-Ex, but not in the Norm-Ex group.

Conclusion:

This study suggests that resistance training under hypoxic conditions improves muscle strength and induces muscle hypertrophy faster than under normoxic conditions, thus representing a promising new training technique.

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Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann and Thorsten Schiffer

had higher fat-free mass (FFM) compared with nonstarters. 2 These characteristics are required for rapid acceleration, linear speed, change of direction, and to cope with repetitive collisions. 3 It is well known that resistance training (RT) is effective in increasing strength, power, hypertrophy

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Bruce M. Lima, Rafael S. Amancio, Diacre S. Gonçalves, Alexander J. Koch, Victor M. Curty and Marco Machado

Skeletal muscle mass is a critical biomarker for maintaining health and optimizing athletic performance. Increasing skeletal muscle mass is a major goal of many exercise regimens. There is a debate about the most effective training model to optimize muscle hypertrophy. Manipulation of several

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

Lower and Upper body Strength and Conditioning Program Alongside the Pitch-Based Rehabilitation Lower body gym program Goal Muscle endurance and maintenance on uninjured limb Hypertrophy Strength with introduction of powerful actions Power, speed, and maintenance of strength Weeks 2–8 9–14 15–20 21

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes and Michael D. Jones

Thigh girth is often used as an indicator of muscle hypertrophy or atrophy during the rehabilitation process following knee surgery. The measurement of thigh girth, using a conventional plastic tape measure, in an attempt to detect muscle hypertrophy or atrophy may be misleading. It is an inaccurate measure of thigh muscle bulk. Although the sample size is small, the results show that measurements are heavily biased by the expectations of observers, with the result that a considerable change in thigh girth is likely to be ignored.

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Koichi Nakazato, Tatsuro Hirose and Hongsun Song

More than 15% dietary protein has reportedly not led to significant muscle hypertrophy in normal growing rats. The aim of this study was to test whether a high protein (HP) diet affects myostatin (Mstn) synthesis in a rat gastrocnemius muscle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were divided into three groups: 1) control diet (15% protein; 15P, n = 8), 2) the 25P group (25% protein, n = 8), and 3) the 35P group (35% protein, n = 8). After 3 wk of isoenergetic feedings, the Mstn level in skeletal muscles was determined using Northern and Western blotting analysis. After the experimental feeding, muscle masses were similar among groups. The 35P showed significant high expressions of Mstn both at mRNA and protein levels. Obtained results suggest that a high-protein diet leads to the high Mstn level to restrict muscle hypertrophy.