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The Effect of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Muscle Atrophy Following Meniscal Repair or Chondral Restoration Surgery in Active Duty Military: A Randomized Controlled Trial

John S. Mason, Michael S. Crowell, Richard A. Brindle, Jeffery A. Dolbeer, Erin M. Miller, Todd A. Telemeco, and Donald L. Goss

stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy and strength. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends using at least 70% of 1-repetition maximum (RM) to achieve strength gains and muscle hypertrophy during strength training. 9 Resistance training below this intensity is unlikely to produce substantial

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Negligible Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Calcium Salt on Strength and Hypertrophic Responses to Resistance Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel, and Guilherme G. Artioli

and to enhance muscle recovery after intensive training ( Wilson et al., 2014 ). This may lead to improved training capacity in the subsequent sessions, thereby promoting further hypertrophy and strength gains. However, not all studies show that HMB attenuates muscle damage ( Nunan et al., 2010 ), and

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The Effect of Block Versus Daily Undulating Periodization on Strength and Performance in Adolescent Football Players

Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann, and Thorsten Schiffer

had higher fat-free mass (FFM) compared with nonstarters. 2 These characteristics are required for rapid acceleration, linear speed, change of direction, and to cope with repetitive collisions. 3 It is well known that resistance training (RT) is effective in increasing strength, power, hypertrophy

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Protein Intake for Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Resistance Training in Seniors

Ryan D. Andrews, David A. MacLean, and Steven E. Riechman

Variability in protein consumption may influence muscle mass changes induced by resistance exercise training (RET). We sought to administer a post-exercise protein supplement and determine if daily protein intake variability affected variability in muscle mass gains. Men (N = 22) and women (N = 30) ranging in age from 60 to 69 y participated in a 12-wk RET program. At each RET session, participants consumed a post-exercise drink (0.4 g/kg lean mass protein). RET resulted in significant increases in lean mass (1.1 ±1.5 kg), similar between sexes (P > 0.05). Variability in mean daily protein intake was not associated with change in lean mass (r < 0.10, P > 0.05). The group with the highest protein intake (1.35 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 8) had similar (P > 0.05) changes in lean mass as the group with the lowest daily protein intake (0.72 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 9). These data suggest that variability in total daily protein intake does not affect variability in lean mass gains with RET in the context of post-exercise protein supplementation.

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Distinctive Scapular Dyskinesis with Hypertrophy of the Serratus Anterior Muscle on Computed Tomography: A Case Report

Jin Hyuck Lee, Ji Soon Park, and Woong Kyo Jeong

Key Points ▸ Scapular dyskinesis can be caused by isolated hypertrophy of the serratus anterior, not only the weakness of the serratus anterior and trapezius. ▸ Bilateral shoulder computed tomography seems to be needed in patients with abnormal scapular movement and periscapular muscle spasm to

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The Effectiveness of Frequency-Based Resistance Training Protocols on Muscular Performance and Hypertrophy in Trained Males: A Critically Appraised Topic

Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita, and Greg Ryan

Clinical Scenario Resistance training (RT) is a common and well-accepted method for the development of muscular strength, power, and hypertrophy. Numerous studies have been undertaken to provide insight into the differences between the frequency of training, 1 – 6 number of muscle groups exercised

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Timing of Resistance Training During Ramadan Fasting and Its Effects on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy

Raoua Triki, Hassane Zouhal, Hamdi Chtourou, Iyed Salhi, Nidhal Jebabli, Ayoub Saeidi, Ismail Laher, Anthony C. Hackney, Urs Granacher, and Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman

RT on body composition, muscle hypertrophy, and physiological adaptation have produced contradictory findings. 24 , 25 For example, while muscle strength and power increased significantly in soccer players after RT (8 repetitions × 4 sets with 4-min recovery in between) during Ramadan, 26 an

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Can Thigh Girth Be measured Accurately? A Preliminary Investigation

Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes, and Michael D. Jones

Thigh girth is often used as an indicator of muscle hypertrophy or atrophy during the rehabilitation process following knee surgery. The measurement of thigh girth, using a conventional plastic tape measure, in an attempt to detect muscle hypertrophy or atrophy may be misleading. It is an inaccurate measure of thigh muscle bulk. Although the sample size is small, the results show that measurements are heavily biased by the expectations of observers, with the result that a considerable change in thigh girth is likely to be ignored.

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The Effect of Low-Load Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Trained Men: A Critically Appraised Topic

Nick Dobson

Clinical Scenario Resistance training (RT) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvements in body composition in both untrained and trained individuals. The exact physiological mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy have not been fully elucidated, but the prime candidates appear

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Increased Myostatin Synthesis in Rat Gastrocnemius Muscles under High-Protein Diet

Koichi Nakazato, Tatsuro Hirose, and Hongsun Song

More than 15% dietary protein has reportedly not led to significant muscle hypertrophy in normal growing rats. The aim of this study was to test whether a high protein (HP) diet affects myostatin (Mstn) synthesis in a rat gastrocnemius muscle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were divided into three groups: 1) control diet (15% protein; 15P, n = 8), 2) the 25P group (25% protein, n = 8), and 3) the 35P group (35% protein, n = 8). After 3 wk of isoenergetic feedings, the Mstn level in skeletal muscles was determined using Northern and Western blotting analysis. After the experimental feeding, muscle masses were similar among groups. The 35P showed significant high expressions of Mstn both at mRNA and protein levels. Obtained results suggest that a high-protein diet leads to the high Mstn level to restrict muscle hypertrophy.