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John S. Mason, Michael S. Crowell, Richard A. Brindle, Jeffery A. Dolbeer, Erin M. Miller, Todd A. Telemeco, and Donald L. Goss

stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy and strength. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends using at least 70% of 1-repetition maximum (RM) to achieve strength gains and muscle hypertrophy during strength training. 9 Resistance training below this intensity is unlikely to produce substantial

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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel, and Guilherme G. Artioli

and to enhance muscle recovery after intensive training ( Wilson et al., 2014 ). This may lead to improved training capacity in the subsequent sessions, thereby promoting further hypertrophy and strength gains. However, not all studies show that HMB attenuates muscle damage ( Nunan et al., 2010 ), and

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Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann, and Thorsten Schiffer

had higher fat-free mass (FFM) compared with nonstarters. 2 These characteristics are required for rapid acceleration, linear speed, change of direction, and to cope with repetitive collisions. 3 It is well known that resistance training (RT) is effective in increasing strength, power, hypertrophy

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Jin Hyuck Lee, Ji Soon Park, and Woong Kyo Jeong

Key Points ▸ Scapular dyskinesis can be caused by isolated hypertrophy of the serratus anterior, not only the weakness of the serratus anterior and trapezius. ▸ Bilateral shoulder computed tomography seems to be needed in patients with abnormal scapular movement and periscapular muscle spasm to

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Ryan D. Andrews, David A. MacLean, and Steven E. Riechman

Variability in protein consumption may influence muscle mass changes induced by resistance exercise training (RET). We sought to administer a post-exercise protein supplement and determine if daily protein intake variability affected variability in muscle mass gains. Men (N = 22) and women (N = 30) ranging in age from 60 to 69 y participated in a 12-wk RET program. At each RET session, participants consumed a post-exercise drink (0.4 g/kg lean mass protein). RET resulted in significant increases in lean mass (1.1 ±1.5 kg), similar between sexes (P > 0.05). Variability in mean daily protein intake was not associated with change in lean mass (r < 0.10, P > 0.05). The group with the highest protein intake (1.35 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 8) had similar (P > 0.05) changes in lean mass as the group with the lowest daily protein intake (0.72 g · kg−1 · d−1, n = 9). These data suggest that variability in total daily protein intake does not affect variability in lean mass gains with RET in the context of post-exercise protein supplementation.

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Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita, and Greg Ryan

Clinical Scenario Resistance training (RT) is a common and well-accepted method for the development of muscular strength, power, and hypertrophy. Numerous studies have been undertaken to provide insight into the differences between the frequency of training, 1 – 6 number of muscle groups exercised

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Nick Dobson

Clinical Scenario Resistance training (RT) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvements in body composition in both untrained and trained individuals. The exact physiological mechanisms that lead to skeletal muscle hypertrophy have not been fully elucidated, but the prime candidates appear

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Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Edilson S. Cyrino

effects of sarcopenia and dynapenia, as this population generally possesses lower levels of muscular strength and SMM compared with men ( Brady et al., 2014 ; Hughes et al., 2001 ). Resistance training (RT) is a well-recognized method of exercise for increasing muscular strength and hypertrophy, and thus

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes, and Michael D. Jones

Thigh girth is often used as an indicator of muscle hypertrophy or atrophy during the rehabilitation process following knee surgery. The measurement of thigh girth, using a conventional plastic tape measure, in an attempt to detect muscle hypertrophy or atrophy may be misleading. It is an inaccurate measure of thigh muscle bulk. Although the sample size is small, the results show that measurements are heavily biased by the expectations of observers, with the result that a considerable change in thigh girth is likely to be ignored.

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Daniel L. Plotkin, Kenneth Delcastillo, Derrick W. Van Every, Kevin D. Tipton, Alan A. Aragon, and Brad J. Schoenfeld

metabolism ( Matthews, 2005 ). However, the context in which supplementation occurs must be taken into account when evaluating the efficacy of BCAA and/or leucine supplementation for muscle hypertrophy and strength. There are many important factors that may influence findings on this topic, including diet