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Rachael C. Gliottoni and Robert W. Motl

This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on perceptions of leg-muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling exercise and the role of anxiety sensitivity in the hypoalgesic effect of caffeine on muscle pain during exercise. Sixteen college-age women ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo and 1 hr later completed 30 min of cycling on an ergometer at 80% of peak aerobic capacity. The conditions were completed in a counterbalanced order, and perceptions of leg-muscle pain were recorded during the bouts of exercise. Caffeine resulted in a large reduction in leg-muscle pain-intensity ratings compared with placebo (d = −0.95), and the reduction in leg-muscle pain-intensity ratings was larger in those with lower anxiety-sensitivity scores than those with higher anxiety-sensitivity scores (d = −1.28 based on a difference in difference scores). The results support that caffeine ingestion has a large effect on reducing leg-muscle pain during high-intensity exercise, and the effect is moderated by anxiety sensitivity.

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Rachael C. Gliottoni, John R. Meyers, Sigurbjörn Á. Arngrímsson, Steven P. Broglio and Robert W. Motl

This experiment examined the effect of a moderate dose of caffeine on quadriceps muscle pain during a bout of high-intensity cycling in low- versus high-caffeine-consuming males. College-age men who were low (≤100 mg/day; n = 12) or high (≥400 mg/day; n = 13) habitual caffeine consumers ingested caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) or a placebo in a counterbalanced order and 1 hr later completed 30 min of cycle ergometry at 75–77% of peak oxygen consumption. Perceptions of quadriceps muscle pain, as well as oxygen consumption, heart rate, and work rate, were recorded during both bouts of exercise. Caffeine ingestion resulted in a statistically significant and moderate reduction in quadriceps muscle-pain-intensity ratings during the 30-min bout of high-intensity cycle ergometry compared with placebo ingestion in both low (d = −0.42) and high (d = −0.55) caffeine consumers. The results suggest that caffeine ingestion is associated with a moderate hypoalgesic effect during high-intensity cycling in college-age men who are low or high habitual caffeine consumers, but future work should consider better defining and differentiating pain and effort when examining the effects of caffeine during acute exercise.

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Todd A. Astorino, Michael N. Terzi, Daniel W. Roberson and Timothy R. Burnett

Caffeine has been shown to reduce leg-muscle pain during submaximal cycle ergometry, as well as in response to eccentric exercise. However, less is known about its analgesic properties during non-steadystate, high-intensity exercise. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of 2 doses of caffeine on leg pain and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. Fifteen active men (age 26.4 ± 3.9 yr) completed 2 bouts of 40 repetitions of “all-out” knee extension and flexion of the dominant leg at a contraction velocity equal to 180°/s. Before each trial, subjects abstained from caffeine intake and intense exercise for 48 hr. Over 3 days separated by 48 hr, subjects ingested 1 of 3 treatments (5 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg of anhydrous caffeine or placebo) in a randomized, single-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Leg-muscle pain and RPE were assessed during and after exercise using established categorical scales. Across all treatments, pain perception was significantly increased (p < .05) during exercise, as well as from Bout 1 to 2, yet there was no effect (p > .05) of caffeine on pain perception or RPE. Various measures of muscle function were improved (p < .05) with a 5-mg/kg caffeine dose vs. the other treatments. In the 5-mg/kg trial, it is plausible that subjects were able to perform better with similar levels of pain perception and exertion.

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Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil and Sylvie Lafrenaye

– 98 . PubMed ID: 10701712 doi:10.2165/00007256-200029020-00002 10701712 10.2165/00007256-200029020-00002 23. Koltyn KF . Exercise-induced hypoalgesia and intensity of exercise . Sports Med . 2002 ; 32 ( 8 ): 477 – 87 . PubMed ID: 12076175 doi:10.2165/00007256-200232080-00001 12076175 10

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Yasmín Ezzatvar, Joaquín Calatayud, Lars L. Andersen and José Casaña

exercise-induced hypoalgesia, which is the typical response to an acute bout of exercise (including aerobic and resistance exercise) in healthy pain-free subjects. 32 In addition, inflammation has been associated with the development and persistence of various pathological pain states. 33 Therefore, the

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Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Moisés Picón-Martínez, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Diego Alexandre Alonso-Aubin and Yasser Alakhdar

flow restriction . Acta Physiol Hung . 2012 ; 99 ( 4 ): 400 – 410 . PubMed ID: 23238542 doi: 10.1556/APhysiol.99.2012.4.4 23238542 26. Korakakis V , Whiteley R , Epameinontidis K . Blood Flow Restriction induces hypoalgesia in recreationally active adult male anterior knee pain patients

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Murat Tomruk, Melda Soysal Tomruk, Emrullah Alkan and Nihal Gelecek

, Buratowski S , Wright A . Specific manipulative therapy treatment for chronic lateral epicondylalgia produces uniquely characteristic hypoalgesia . Man Ther . 2001 ; 6 ( 4 ): 205 – 212 . PubMed ID: 11673930 doi:10.1054/math.2001.0411 10.1054/math.2001.0411 11673930 9. Vicenzino B , Prangley I

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Paul Head, Mark Waldron, Nicola Theis and Stephen David Patterson

exercise-induced hypoalgesia in the occluded limb of healthy adults . J Appl Physiol . 2017 ; 122 ( 5 ): 1284 – 1291 . PubMed ID: 28183823 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01004.2016 28183823 53. Kang JH , Hyong IH . The influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the heart rate variability in