competitive advantage over their opponent. 2 – 3 The duration between being weighed and the competition ranges approximately 3 to 24 hours depending on the sport and level of competition. 2 , 4 Hypohydration induced by thermal stress is a commonly utilized method of body mass reduction, especially within
Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias and Chris R. Abbiss
Joseph F. Seay, Brett R. Ely, Robert W. Kenefick, Shane G. Sauer and Samuel N. Cheuvront
We examined the effect of body water deficits on standing balance and sought to determine if plasma hyperosmolality (Posm) and/or volume reduction (%ΔVplasma) exerted independent effects. Nine healthy volunteers completed three experimental trials which consisted of a euhydration (EUH) balance test, a water deficit session and a hypohydration (HYP) balance test. Hypohydration was achieved both by exercise-heat stress to 3% and 5% body mass loss (BML), and by a diuretic to 3% BML. Standing balance was assessed during quiet standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. With eyes closed, hypohydration significantly decreased medial-lateral sway path and velocity by 13% (both p < .040). However, 95% confidence intervals for the mean difference between EUH and HYP were all within the coefficient of variation of EUH measures, indicating limited practical importance. Neither Vplasma loss nor Posm increases were associated with changes in balance. We concluded that standing balance was not altered by hypohydration.
Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson
exercise, multiple training sessions sometimes occur on a single day (e.g., training camps), and matches are sometimes played on consecutive days (e.g., field hockey tournaments include ∼5 matches in 7–8 days). The prevalence of minimal hypohydration (first morning urine specific gravity [Usg] = 1.010 − 1
Neil S. Maxwell, Richard W.A. Mackenzie and David Bishop
To examine the effect of hypohydration on physiological strain and intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat (35.5 ± 0.6°C, 48.7 ± 3.4% relative humidity).
Eight unacclimatized males (age 23.4 ± 6.2 y, height 1.78 ± 0.04 m, mass 76.8 ± 7.7 kg) undertook three trials, each over two days. On day 1, subjects performed 90 min of exercise/heat-induced dehydration on a cycle ergometer, before following one of three rehydration strategies. On day 2, subjects completed a 36-min cycling intermittent sprint test (IST) with a -0.62 ± 0.74% (euhydrated, EUH), -1.81 (0.99)% (hypohydrated1, HYPO1), or -3.88 ± 0.89% (hypohydrated2, HYPO2) body mass defcit.
No difference was observed in average total work (EUH, 3790 ± 556 kJ; HYPO1, 3785 ± 628 kJ; HYPO2, 3647 ± 339 kJ, P = 0.418), or average peak power (EUH, 1315 ± 129 W; HYPO1, 1304 ± 175 W; HYPO2, 1282 ± 128 W, P = 0.356) between conditions on day 2. Total work and peak power output in the sprint immediately following an intense repeated sprint bout during the IST were lower in the HYPO2 condition. Physiological strain index was greater in the HYPO2 vs. the EUH condition, but without changes in metabolic markers.
A greater physiological strain was observed with the greatest degree of hypohydration; however, sprint performance only diminished in the most hypohydrated state near the end of the IST, following an intense bout of repeating sprinting.
Donald R. Dengel, Peter G. Weyand, Donna M. Black and Kirk J. Cureton
To investigate the effects of varying levels of hypohydration on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during moderate and heavy submaximal exercise, and at the lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT), 9 male subjects cycled under states of euhydration (EU), moderate hypohydration (MH), and severe hypohydration (SH). The desired level of hypohydration was achieved over a 36-hr period by having subjects cycle at 50% VO2max in a 38°C environment on two occasions while controlling fluid intake and diet. During submaximal exercise, oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate, and RPE were not significantly different among treatments. Hypohydration did not significantly alter LT or VT, or perceptual responses at LT or VT. It is concluded that hypohydration of up to 5.6% caused by fluid manipulation and exercise in the heat over a 36-hr period does not alter RPE or the lactate or ventilatory threshold, nor RPE at the lactate and ventilatory thresholds measured during moderate and heavy submaximal cycling in a neutral (22°C) environment.
Matthew T. Wittbrodt, Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ross A. Sherman and Christopher C. Cheatham
The impact of mild hypohydration on physiological responses and cognitive performance following exercise-heat stress (EHS) were examined compared with conditions when fluids were ingested ad libitum (AL) or replaced to match sweat losses (FR).
Twelve unacclimatized, recreationally-active men (22.2 ± 2.4 y) completed 50 min cycling (60%VO2peak) in the heat (32°C; 65% RH) under three conditions: no fluid (NF), AL, and FR. Before and after EHS, a cognitive battery was completed: Trail making, perceptual vigilance, pattern comparison, match-to-sample, and letter-digit recognition tests.
Hypohydration during NF was greater compared with AL and FR (NF: -1.5 ± 0.6; AL: -0.3 ± 0.8; FR: -0.1 ± 0.3% body mass loss) resulting in higher core temperature (by 0.4, 0.5 °C), heart rate (by 13 and 15 b·min-1), and physiological strain (by 1.3, 1.5) at the end of EHS compared with AL and FR, respectively. Cognitive performance (response time and accuracy) was not altered by fluid condition; however, mean response time improved (p < .05) for letter-digit recognition (by 56.7 ± 85.8 ms or 3.8%; p < .05) and pattern comparison (by 80.6 ± 57.4 ms or 7.1%; p < .001), but mean accuracy decreased in trail making (by 1.2 ± 1.4%; p = .01) after EHS (across all conditions).
For recreational athletes, fluid intake effectively mitigated physiological strain induced by mild hypohydration; however, mild hypohydration resulting from EHS elicited no adverse changes in cognitive performance.
Flavia Meyer, Oded Bar-Or, Avi Salsberg and Dennis Passe
This study examined changes in children's thirst and drink preferences during exercise-induced hypohydration and their spontaneous rehydration during a 30-min recovery. Twenty-four 9- to 13-year-old children (14 females, 10 males) participated in four intermittent 90-rnin cycling sessions in the heat (
Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway
Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a popular tool to determine body composition (BC) in athletes, and is used for analysis of fat-free soft tissue mass (FFST) or fat mass (FM) gain/loss in response to exercise or nutritional interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of exercise-heat stress induced hypohydration (HYP, >2% of body mass (BM) loss) vs. maintenance of euhydration (EUH) on DXA estimates of BC, sum of skinfolds (SF), and impedance (IMP) measurements in athletes. Competitive athletes (23 males and 15 females) recorded morning nude BM for 7 days before the first main trial. Measurements on the first trial day were conducted in a EUH condition, and again after exercise-heat stress induced HYP. On the second trial day, fluid and electrolyte losses were replaced during exercise using a sports drink. A reduction in total BM (1.6 ± 0.4 kg; 2.3 ± 0.4% HYP) and total FFST (1.3 ± 0.4 kg), mainly from trunk (1.1 ± 0.5 kg), was observed using DXA when participants were HYP, reflecting the sweat loss. Estimated fat percent increased (0.3 ± 0.3%), however, total FM did not change (0.1 ± 0.2 kg). SF and IMP declined with HYP (losses of 1.5 ± 2.9% and 1.6 ± 3% respectively) suggesting FM loss. When EUH was maintained there were no significant changes in BM, DXA estimates, or SF values pre to post exercise, but IMP still declined. We conclude that use of DXA for FFST assessment in athletes must ensure a EUH state, particularly when considering changes associated with nutritional or exercise interventions.
Marcos Echegaray, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh, Deborah Riebe, Robert W. Kenefick, John W. Castellani, Stavros Kavouras and Douglas Casa
This study assessed the plasma glucose (PG) and hormonal responses to carbohydrate ingestion, prior to exercise in the heat, in a hypohydrated state versus partial rehydration with intravenous solutions. On separate days, 8 subjects (21.0 ± 1.8 years; 57.3 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1) exercised at 50% V̇O2maxin a 33 °C environment until a 4% body weight loss was achieved. Following this, subjects were rehydrated (25 ml · kg−1) with either: 0.45% IV saline (45IV), 0.9% IV saline (9IV), or no fluid (NF). Subjects then ingested 1 g · kg−1 of carbohydrate and underwent an exercise test (treadmill walking, 50% V̇O2max, 36 °C) for up to 90 min. Compared to pre-exercise level (294 mg · dl−1), PG increased significantly (>124 mg · dl−1) at 15 min of the exercise test in all trials and remained significantly elevated for 75 min in NF, 30 min more than in the 2 rehydration trials. Although serum Insulin increased significantly at 15 min of exercise in the 45IV trial (7.2 ± 1.2 vs. 23.7 ± 4.7 μIU · ml−1) no significant differences between trials were observed. Peak plasma norepinephrine was significantly higher in NF (640 ± 66 pg · ml−1) compared to the 45IV and 9IV trials (472 ± 55 and 474 ± 52 pg · ml−1, respectively). In conclusion, ingestion of a small solid carbohydrate load prior to exercise in the 4% hypohydration level resulted in prolonged high PG concentration compared to partial IV rehydration.
Lewis J. James and Susan M. Shirreffs
Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.