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Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling

developed specifically to enhance performance for ice hockey players. ACT is a contextual behavioral therapy that often includes work with metaphors and experiential exercises. The theory of ACT is based in behavioral analysis and relational frame theory (RFT)—a behavioral account of human language and

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John G.H. Dunn

Many competitive sport anxiety researchers have examined the degree to which athletes worry before or during competition. Little attention has been paid, however, to establishing a conceptual framework for structuring the content of competitive worry. The main purpose of this study was to examine the latent dimensionality of competitive worry in intercollegiate ice hockey (N= 178) using a conceptual framework based on two multidimensional anxiety theories developed by Endler (1983) and Hackfort (1986). Multidimensional scaling and factor-analytic results revealed that competitive worry in ice hockey can be structured around a combination of four potential content domains relating to athletes’ fear of failure, negative social evaluation, injury or physical danger, and the unknown. These constructs were congruent with the situational anxiety dimensions proposed by Endler and Hackfort. Discussion focuses on the characteristic features of the four worry domains and the extent to which athletes were predisposed to experiencing each type of worry.

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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

types. For example, girls who participate in sport benefit from increased confidence, self-esteem, social well-being, and empowerment ( Eime et al., 2013 ; Pedersen & Seidman, 2004 ; United Nations, 2007 ), and benefits specific to female ice hockey players include character development, academic

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Bernd J. Stetter, Erica Buckeridge, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Sandro R. Nigg and Benno M. Nigg

This study presents a new approach for automated identification of ice hockey skating strides and a method to detect ice contact and swing phases of individual strides by quantifying vibrations in 3D acceleration data during the blade–ice interaction. The strides of a 30-m forward sprinting task, performed by 6 ice hockey players, were evaluated using a 3D accelerometer fixed to a hockey skate. Synchronized plantar pressure data were recorded as reference data. To determine the accuracy of the new method on a range of forward stride patterns for temporal skating events, estimated contact times and stride times for a sequence of 5 consecutive strides was validated. Bland-Altman limits of agreement (95%) between accelerometer and plantar pressure derived data were less than 0.019 s. Mean differences between the 2 capture methods were shown to be less than 1 ms for contact and stride time. These results demonstrate the validity of the novel approach to determine strides, ice contact, and swing phases during ice hockey skating. This technology is accurate, simple, effective, and allows for in-field ice hockey testing.

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A. Villaseñor, R.A. Turcotte and D.J. Pearsall

The purpose of this study was to examine the “recoil” effect of the ice hockey stick shaft during a stationary slap shot. Nine male adult subjects (four elite and five recreational) were tested. Their performances were evaluated by simultaneously recording stick movement and internal bending from high-speed digital video (1,000 Hz) and puck acceleration from a triaxial accelerometer positioned inside the puck. In addition, an electrical circuit measured blade–puck contact time. Data were analyzed with a one-way MANOVA for several dependent variables, including final puck velocity, puck acceleration, maximum stick shaft bending (angle and distance deflection), stick shaft angular velocities, blade–puck contact time, and corresponding time events. The results indicate the following. First, blade–puck contact time was greater for the elite than for recreational players (38 ± 9 ms and 27 ± 5 ms); however, measures for puck acceleration were essentially the same (63.8 g ± 9.9 and 61.8 g ± 19.5). Two, the elite players were able to generate greater puck velocities (120 ± 18 km/h and 80.3 ± 11.6 km/h). Three, the recoil timing was found to be greater for elite players (59.8% of blade–puck contact).

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Robyn F. Madden, Kelly A. Erdman, Jane Shearer, Lawrence L. Spriet, Reed Ferber, Ash T. Kolstad, Jessica L. Bigg, Alexander S.D. Gamble and Lauren C. Benson

Ice hockey is characterized by short bursts of high-intensity physical exertion, 1 which requires athletes to simultaneously execute skilled maneuvers. 2 In addition, physicality (ie, body contact) is a necessary component of game play, particularly in men’s ice hockey where body checking is

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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

the “relative age effect” (RAE). RAEs have been observed in many team sports ( Cobley et al., 2009 ) and in men’s ice hockey, where players born in Q1 are consistently overrepresented relative to those born later in the year (e.g.,  Baker, Cobley, et al., 2010 ; Barnsley & Thompson, 1988 ; Grondin

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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

The sport of ice hockey is characterized by athletes repeatedly performing high-intensity, short-duration efforts while maintaining highly complex movements over the course of a 60-minute competition. For optimal performance, ice hockey athletes need to have well-rounded physical and physiological

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

Ice hockey players often begin activity hypohydrated and experience additional dehydration during exercise. 1 – 3 There are several specific risk factors for hypohydration among this population. Excessive equipment can create a microenvironment that promotes sweat loss and inhibits evaporative

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Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan and Kelcey K. deWeber

varies among sport type. 4 Team sport athletes have more frequent and riskier alcohol consumption that is associated with a desire to “fit in” or prove one’s self to teammates. 5 Other cultural norms can also promote alcohol consumption, such as those within ice hockey, where tradition and a desire to