Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman’s rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW ≤85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.
Katie J. Thralls, Jeanne F. Nichols, Michelle T. Barrack, Mark Kern and Mitchell J. Rauh
Marco E. Cabrera, Marvin D. Lough, Carl F. Doershuk and Georgette A. DeRivera
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were studied to investigate the muscles’ ability to produce and sustain high-intensity short-term exercise in this population. The patients, 17 males and 23 females, ranged from 10 to 39 years of age. Each patient performed a pulmonary function test followed by a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Based on a pulmonary function scoring system, patients were classified as having severe, moderate, or mild lung dysfunction, or normal lung function. Percent ideal body weight was used to categorize the patients as nourished or malnourished. Two indices of anaerobic performance (peak power and mean power) were determined from the WAnT and normalized by actual weight or by ideal weight. Patients in the severe and moderate groups had lower peak power (PP) and lower mean power (MP) than those in the mild and normal groups. Similarly, malnourished patients showed a lower PP and MP than did nourished patients. These results were similar regardless of whether PP or MP were normalized by weight or ideal weight. It is concluded that the anaerobic performance (muscle power and endurance) of CF patients, as assessed by the WAnT, was related to the degree of severity of the overall disease process.
Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F. De Moraes, Alan R. Barker, Luis A. Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino and Luis Gracia-Marco
assessment of percentage of body fat (%BF), allows identifying body composition imbalances that can affect athletes’ performance and overall health and well-being during growth ( 1 ). Adolescents may develop compulsive weight loss behaviors to reach a perceived “ideal” body weight for competition ( 7
Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde
intentional/deliberate this is, majority of the athletes report their ideal body weight for racing to be lower than that during preparation period (Mooses, unpublished data). Finally, food insecurity is likely to play a role in contributing to LEA. The pursuit of running success is often undertaken with the