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Joon Sung Lee, Dae Hee Kwak and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove

Athlete endorsers’ transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reasoning strategies, and consumer evaluations. By using an actual scandal involving an NFL player (i.e., Ray Rice), the results show that fan identification suppresses the experience of negative moral emotions but facilitates fans’ moral disengagement processes, which enables fans to support the wrongdoer. Moreover, negative moral emotions motivate the moral coupling process. Findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior literature that highly identified fans seem to regulate negative emotions but deliberately select moral disengagement reasoning strategies to maintain their positive stance toward the wrongdoer and associated brands.

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Jorge Arede, António Paulo Ferreira, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Nuno Leite

identification process. However, research has been focused mostly on club team players, 2 , 5 – 9 and the information that describes national team players and their recruitment/selection process seems to be scarce. At the national team level, the pioneer work of Erčulj et al 10 examined the physical parameters

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Nicole T. Gabana, Aaron D’Addario, Matteo Luzzeri, Stinne Soendergaard and Y. Joel Wong

.g., spiritual identification, religious practice) would inform the body of knowledge in both the positive psychology and sport psychology literature. Recent research has demonstrated initial support for the use of gratitude interventions in sport, as Gabana, Steinfeldt, Wong, Chung, and Svetina ( 2019 ) found increases in

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Matthew Katz and Bob Heere

The authors examined the longitudinal development of team identification among stakeholders of a newly formed intercollegiate football team to empirically measure the impact of a new football team on university identification. Using a multidimensional approach to identification, data were collected over a 3-year period and analyzed using growth curve analysis to determine the changes and trajectories of the individual dimensions of identification related to both the new football team and the larger university. Conditional growth models were used to determine the percentage of change in university identification explained by changes in team identification—to test whether new team identification drives identification with the larger university. The presented findings allow for an improved understanding of the psychological impact of a new football team for the university community by using growth curve analysis, which provides a more detailed and accurate empirical examination of identification, rather than traditional two-wave cross-lagged designs. Implications of the longitudinal nature of identification and the psychological value of a new football team for the university are discussed.

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Dimitrios-Sokratis Komaris, Cheral Govind, Andrew Murphy, Alistair Ewen and Philip Riches

biomechanics of the sit-to-stand and sit-to-walk movement, in people with disabilities, has been previously reported. 18 – 21 The identification of movement strategies, or the study of their effects, has been achieved via questionnaires, video observation, and motion analysis. 22 – 26 Pushing through the

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue

identification with a specific team or team identification (team ID). In other words, those who have a stronger team ID (i.e., individuals perceive themselves as fans of the team and view the team as a representation of themselves; Branscombe & Wann, 1992 ) are more likely to experience the state of being in

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Annlaug Flem Maeland

This study focuses on identification of children with motor coordination problems and investigates whether the incidence of children with such problems in a normal school setting in Norway is comparable to that found in other countries using the same tests and criteria. The study also examines whether there would be any agreement between two motor tests, the Test of Motor Proficiency (TMP) and the Test of Motor Impairment (TOMI), and teachers’ judgment in identifying clumsiness among 360 children 10 years of age. The results showed that while the three different assessment methods identified about the same number of children with such problems (5-5.6%), each measure identified a somewhat different set of children. The lack of agreement demonstrates the difficulty in assessing subtle motor coordination problems or clumsiness.

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Brad D. Carlson and D. Todd Donavan

By integrating social identity theory with brand personality, the authors test a model of how perceptions of human brands affect consumer’s level of cognitive identification. The findings suggest that consumers view athletes as human brands with unique personalities. Additional findings demonstrate that athlete prestige and distinctiveness leads to the evaluation of athlete identification. Once consumers identified with the athlete, they were more likely to feel an emotional attachment to the athlete, identify with the athlete’s team, purchase team-related paraphernalia and increase their team-related viewership habits. The findings extend previous research on human brands and brand personalities in sports. Marketers can use the information gleaned from this study to better promote products that are closely associated with well-recognized and attractive athletes, thereby increasing consumer retail spending. In addition, the findings offer new insights to sports marketers seeking to increase team-related spectatorship by promoting the image of easily recognizable athletes.

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Theresa A. Walton and Jennifer L. Fisette

We used ethnographic methods to examine the ways that adolescent girls (n=9) defined and understood themselves as individuals and in relation to cultural identities. We utilized Cook-Sather’s (2002, 2006, 2007) theory of translation to make sense of their identification as an unfixed process of negotiation by centering their voices and revelations. While the girls struggled to articulate cultural identities in relation to themselves, they had clear notions of those identities and the social expectations associated to them. They noted the ways cultural identities could be both empowering and constricting. Moreover, we found that they understood and discussed cultural identities in relation to themselves and others in ways that both resisted and maintained social categories.

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Michael R. Real and Robert A. Mechikoff

The relationship between the media sports fan and the sporting event closely parallels the position of the ritual participant acting out a mythic celebration. Such identification between the viewer/participant and the event has been characterized as “deep play” by Geertz (1973). However, this fan experience in the modem era is shaped not just by human face-to-face interaction, as was Geertz’s famous Balinese cockfight; instead, a specific media technology and commercial advertising provide the structure through which the public accesses media sports. This study examines grounded data on audience size and composition, advertising, commercial infrastructure and incentives, and other institutional aspects of the political economy of mass-mediated sport. What do cultural and ritual theory contribute to our understanding of the mass-mediated sports experience of today’s “deep fan”?