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Aaron C. Mansfield

other stages ( Gutmann, 1975 ). Thus, I have aimed to address this gap. To do so, I leveraged identity theory ( Stryker, 1968 ). According to this theory, individuals’ role identities (e.g., parent and fan) exist within a prioritization structure known as a “salience hierarchy” ( Stryker & Serpe, 1994

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Aaron C. Mansfield, Matthew Katz, and Elizabeth B. Delia

purpose of this study is to illuminate how health-conscious sport fans negotiate their multiple role identities. Literature Review Identity Theory Identity theory is an extension of symbolic interactionism (see Mead, 1934 ). According to identity theory, an individual’s social roles (e

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Janet S. Fink, Heidi M. Parker, Martin Brett, and Julie Higgins

In the current article, we extend the literature on fan identification and social identity theory by examining the effects of unscrupulous off-field behaviors of athletes. In doing so, we drew from both social identity theory and Heider’s balance theory to hypothesize a significant interaction between fan identification level and leadership response on fans’ subsequent levels of identification. An experimental study was performed and a 2 (high, low identification) × 2 (weak, strong leadership response) ANOVA was conducted with the pre to post difference score in team identification as the dependent variable. There was a significant interaction effect (F (2, 80) = 23.71, p < .001) which explained 23% of the variance in the difference between prepost test scores. The results provide evidence that unscrupulous acts by athletes off the field of play can impact levels of team identification, particularly for highly identified fans exposed to a weak leadership response. The results are discussed relative to appropriate theory. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are also forwarded.

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Jacquelyn Paige Pope and Craig Hall

This study tested the degree to which coaches’ basic psychological need fulfillment and identity prominence were associated with their positive affect, commitment, and intentions to persist. In total, 413 coaches with an average of 14 years’ experience served as participants and completed an online survey that included six sections: Demographics, basic psychological needs, identity prominence, positive affect, commitment, and intentions to persist. The present study findings provide initial support for the links from coaches’ basic psychological needs and identity prominence to their positive affect and commitment. In contrast, the findings did not provide support for the relationship between coaches’ basic psychological need fulfillment and their intentions to persist or the association between their identity prominence and intentions to persist. The results offer an explanation of the mechanisms that may play a role in facilitating coaches’ optimal functioning.

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Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross, and Patrick Walsh

Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster, and Gavin Breslin

to study how athletes’ identity formation, and hence group behavior, is influenced by social processes is social-identity theory (SIT; Tajfel, 1982 ). SIT assesses the formation of identity, based on membership in a social in-group. When individuals perceive personal value in subscribing to in

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Samuel D. Hakim

similarities can include personality traits and work ethic. People see athletes as both hero and as celebrity—both of which carry social desirability that fans strive to either have or be affiliated with ( Billings & Brown, 2017 ; Fontenrose, 1968 ). Social Identity Theory and Fan Identity Social identity

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Andrew C. Billings, Nathan A. Towery, Sean R. Sadri, and Elisabetta Zengaro

study reveals the extent to which increased identification can lead to extreme and radical zealotry. Finally, the study uncovers whether sport tribalism correlates with political and religious tribalism as well. Related Literature At its core, social identity theory ( Tajfel & Turner, 1985 ) is not

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Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel, and Claas Christian Germelmann

context of team sport—more specifically in European football. (We use the term football throughout this paper when referring to soccer.) Adopting a social-identity-theory approach ( Tajfel & Turner, 1979 ), this research aimed to study how antisponsor communities influence football fans and their self

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Maurice Vergeer and Leon Mulder

). Group identity can be interpreted in line with social-identity theory ( Tajfel, 1982 ). In particular, identity formation in combination with the struggle for scarce goods (i.e., win or lose, cf. Blalock’s realistic conflict theory, 1967 ; cf. LeVine & Campbell, 1972 ), creates an ingroup