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Michael B. Johnson, William A. Edmonds, Akihito Kamata, and Gershon Tenenbaum

The purpose of this article is to present the procedural steps used to derive a person’s Individual Affect-Related Performance Zones (IAPZs). An IAPZ is that range of affect (i.e., arousal and pleasure) within which an individual has a probability of performing at a particular level (e.g., optimal, moderate, or poor). This methodology has been used in a number of research studies but has yet to be operationalized in the literature. The purpose of this procedure is to facilitate training programs designed to improve human performance in any number of domains via idiosyncratic control over affect. The methodology described consists of eight steps: (a) collecting data, (b) categorizing affect and performance level, (c) converting the data, (d) performing logistical ordinal regressions, (e) creating IAPZ curves, (f) creating IAPZ profile charts, (g) plotting within competition states onto IAPZ profile charts, and (h) utilizing IAPZs to select, implement, and evaluate performance enhancement strategies.

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Robert Carter III, Samuel N. Cheuvront, and Michael N. Sawka


We report our observations on one soldier with abnormal hyperthermia during exercise in the heat compared with prior exercise and following acute local (non-febrile) infection. Also, we report on 994 heat stroke hospitalizations in the U.S. Army. It is known that prior infection is a risk factor for heat illness and some of the 37 heat stroke deaths cited infections (eg, pneumonia, influenza) in the medical records.


This case report illustrates complete recovery from abnormal hyperthermia, which occurred in a laboratory setting during mild, low intensity exercise. In a field setting, this case may have resulted in serious heat illness. As with most of the heat stroke cases, rapid medical attention (ie, cooling and rehydration) and the age group (19 to 26) that represents majority of the heatstroke cases in U.S. Army are likely factors that contribute successful treatment of heatstroke in the field environment.


We conclude that acute inflammatory response can augment the hyperthermia of exercise and possibly increase heat illness susceptibility. Furthermore, it is important for health care providers of soldiers and athletes to monitor acute local infections due to the potential thermoregulatory consequences during exercise in the heat.

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Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of a learned preperformance routine (PPR) with an intuitively developed one before a simulation race on advanced swimmers’ speed and motor efficiency, as well as self-efficacy and emotional regulation. In total, 46 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers were stratified to either the control (intuitively developed PPR) or the PPR condition, which included four instructional sessions aimed at developing a PPR. A simulated competitive race was organized before and after the intervention. For each simulation, speed and motor efficiency were measured during the race, and self-efficacy and emotions, after the completion of the race. Nonsignificant effects were revealed for speed, motor efficiency, and self-efficacy following the intervention. However, performing a learned PPR prior to racing significantly influenced the swimmers’ emotional state. These results provide some support for the effect of a PPR on emotional regulation prior to a swimming race.

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Edson Filho

possess idiosyncratic psycho–bio–social states underpinning optimal and suboptimal performance states ( Hanin, 2000 ). Specifically, the intensity and content of individuals’ psycho–bio–social states are theorized to (a) differ in optimal and suboptimal performance, (b) be expressed through different

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

-independent thinking is most frequent before and after the competition. Mindwandering In regard to mindwandering, the content of these EMUs was remarkably idiosyncratic. The participants thought about both the past (“What was Patrick’s mother doing in the restaurant? I don’t understand. And how did it occur to me to

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Kevin Patton and Melissa Parker

, program choice was predicated by both personal and professional factors including disciplinary and institutional, as well as idiosyncratic and personal considerations. Disciplinary and Institutional Considerations: “I Did My Homework” A cadre of doctoral seekers considered their professional needs and

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Nefertiti A. Walker, Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Marvin Washington, Lauren C. Hindman, and Jeffrey MacCharles

disparity compared to other fields • Overworked • Idiosyncratic nature of sport internships • It’s definitely important to get experience and meet the right people • The most important thing is making connections for your career • It’s extremely important to have one, and I would say it’s pretty difficult

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Michelle Seanor, Robert J. Schinke, Natalia B. Stambulova, Kristoffer Henriksen, Dave Ross, and Cole Giffin

organizational culture of a sport environment to produce successful or unsuccessful outcomes (see Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017 for a review). Findings from studies embracing the HEA reveal that sport environments are idiosyncratic. Henriksen and Stambulova conducted case studies in different sport environments

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Pierre Trudel, Kyle Paquette, and Dan Lewis

learning situations ( He, Trudel, & Culver, 2018 ) that span over years to constitute the coaches’ lifelong learning journeys ( Watts & Cushion, 2017 ). Although HP coaches’ learning journeys are winding and idiosyncratic ( Lara-Bercial & Mallett, 2016 ; Werthner & Trudel, 2009 ), most of these coaches

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Roy David Samuel, Guy Matzkin, Saar Gal, and Chris Englert

et al. ( 2008 ) showed that international-level archers possessed unique idiosyncratic profiles of arousal, pleasure, and HR linked to optimal and nonoptimal performance. Even in a single competition day, the archers fluctuated among their optimal and nonoptimal affect-related performance zones