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Nancy D. Groh and Greggory M. Hundt

of medical conditions and illnesses. Self-efficacy relates to how confident an individual feels about carrying out a skill or skill set and is often influenced by performing in a specific situation, making it a critical factor in translating one’s knowledge and skill into successful task completion

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Johanna K. Ihalainen, Oona Kettunen, Kerry McGawley, Guro Strøm Solli, Anthony C. Hackney, Antti A. Mero, and Heikki Kyröläinen

how these variables differ between ATH and CON and are associated with injury, illness, and performance improvements in ATH. With 8 of the ATH identified as being amenorrheic (AME), an additional outcome of the study was to report the differences between AME and eumenorrheic (EUM) ATH. Methods

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon, and Peter Peeling

return to normal within 5–6 hr postexercise: an exception is natural killer cells, the numbers and function of which can remain depressed for up to 48 hr during the recovery period. Illness Risk Subclinical and Clinical Illness As a consequence of exercise-induced immunodepression, resistance to

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Kami N. Thews, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kirsten A. Potts, and Kenneth E. Games

Key Points ▸ Firefighters experience many perceived barriers, both cultural and structural, when attempting to report mental or behavioral illness. ▸ The most challenging perceived barriers reported by firefighters included the fear of letting their fellow firefighters down and the inability to

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paratriathlon is a variant of triathlon modified for individuals with a physical impairment. 1 It has been shown that paratriathletes produce large training loads (TLs) to maximize beneficial adaptations. 1 However, there is a risk that high TLs will increase the likelihood of illness, 2 most

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Riana R. Pryor, Douglas J. Casa, Susan W. Yeargin, and Zachary Y. Kerr

Key Points ▸ Schools with multiple athletic trainers implement more heat illness safety policies. ▸ Team physicians at football practices may enhance heat illness management strategies. ▸ Team physician presence may influence riskier heat illness prevention strategies. An estimated 9,200 high

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Robert Ahmun, Steve McCaig, Jamie Tallent, Sean Williams, and Tim Gabbett

relationship between internal workloads, daily wellness scores, and injury and illness in a group of elite adolescent cricketers during overseas competitions. Methods Participants The sample comprised of 39 male adolescent cricketers (17.5 [0.8] y) who were selected to play international age group cricket

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon, and Miriam C. Morey

shown to thwart the process of deconditioning, build resilience ( Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000 ), abbreviate the periods of exacerbation of acute illness, and reduce the impact of subsequent health crises ( Hawkley et al., 2005 ). In contrast, for older adults hospitalized with acute illness, the

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David B. Pyne, Evert A. Verhagen, and Margo Mountjoy

In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta, and Monica K. Torstveit

availability is critical for athletic performance 4 as being free from illness and injury permits athletes to maintain consistent, heavy training loads throughout the year. Intensified training periods 5 , 6 and sharp increases in training load 6 , 7 are risk factors that may increase the incidence of self