shown the positive effects of biofeedback training on sport performance; however, it lacks investigation into the effects of combining additional regulation strategies, such as imagery, with biofeedback. In the sport and performance literature, imagery is a well-researched topic, with previous research
Kendra Nelson Ferguson, Craig Hall, and Alison Divine
Frank C. Bakker, Marc S.J. Boschker, and Tjuling Chung
Investigating emotional imagery, Lang (1977, 1979) proposed a dichotomy between stimulus and response propositions. In this study, Lang’s model is applied to movement images of lifting of 4.5 and 9 kg weights. Twenty-two male and 17 female students participated in the study. During the imaginary lifting of the weights, the electromyographical activity (EMG) of both biceps brachii muscles were assessed. Imagery ability was measured with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) and another self-report rating scale. When response propositions were emphasized in the script, imaginary weight lifting resulted in greater muscle activity than when stimulus propositions were emphasized. During imagined lifting, EMG activity of the active arm was greater than that of the passive arm. In addition, in the active arm, a significant difference in EMG activity was found between 9 kg and 4.5 kg. It was concluded that Lang’s model is also applicable to emotionally neutral movement imagery.
Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards
Research examining the effects of imagery on the acquisition and execution of motor performance has delineated imagery into modalities and perspectives. This delineation includes visual and kinesthetic sensory modalities (e.g., Fourkas, Avenanti, Urgesi, & Aglioti, 2006 ; Guillot et al., 2009
Irene Muir, Krista J. Munroe-Chandler, and Todd Loughead
; Hanrahan, 1996 ; Monsma & Overby, 2004 ). One mental skill capable of influencing cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes in dancers is imagery. Imagery, which is described as the creation or recreation of an experience in one’s mind ( Vealey & Greenleaf, 2010 ), has been used by dancers to mentally
Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, and Thomas Schack
way of imagery training of tactical skills has evolved (cognitive general imagery; for an overview, see Westlund Stewart, Pope, & Tobin, 2012 ). While to date, research has focused on changes in performance and learning on a behavioral level of interaction, research on the influence of imagery
Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade, and David Kavanagh
with an English professional soccer team to improve each of its team member’s grit through imagery-based motivational training. The concept of grit has been applied widely, from dropout rates at the United States Military Academy ( Duckworth & Quinn, 2009 ) to marriage ( Eskreis-Winkler, Shulman, Beal
Kimberley L. Gammage, Craig R. Hall, and Wendy M. Rodgers
Imagery plays important cognitive and motivational roles in many areas of life, including sport (Paivio, 1985) and exercise (Hausenblas, Hall, Rodgers, & Munroe, 1999). The purpose of the present paper was to examine how the cognitive and motivational roles of exercise imagery vary with gender, frequency of exercise, and activity type. Participants (n = 577) completed the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire (Hausenblas et al„ 1999) which measures appearance, energy, and technique imagery. Participants, regardless of gender, frequency of exercise, or activity type, used appearance imagery most frequently, followed by technique and energy, respectively. Men used significantly more technique imagery than women did, while women used significantly more appearance imagery than men did. In addition, high frequency exercisers (3 or more times per week) used all types of imagery more frequently than low frequency exercisers (2 or fewer times per week). Finally, imagery differences existed based on type of activity.
Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming, and Sarah E. Williams
important to employ strategies that target these different social-cognitive factors. A well-known intervention strategy to promote PA is imagery ( Hall, 1995 ). Imagery is defined as the mental representation of an object, action, or psychological state in the absence of any external stimulus and can be
Justin M. Slade, Daniel M. Landers, and Philip E. Martin
Based on inflow explanations, the predictions related to EMG activity during imagery of a dumbbell and manipulandum curl were that EMG activity: (a) increases, relative to baseline, in both the biceps and triceps of the active arm; (b) is localized to muscles used in executing the real movement; and (c) mirrors the pattern of activity observed during the real movement. Based on literature which suggests that EMG activity during imagery may be due to expectancy effects, it was also hypothesized that EMG activity would be greater during imagery for those who were aware of the predictions of inflow explanations than for those who were unaware of those predictions. Undergraduate students (N = 60) completed a series of real and imagined dumbbell and manipulandum curls. For both movements, biceps and triceps EMG activity was measured in both the passive and active arms during baseline, imagery, and real movement conditions. No EMG differences were found between those who were aware or unaware of the predictions derived from inflow explanations. For both curls, average EMG biceps and triceps activity was significantly greater in the active arm during imagery than during baseline. Pattern analysis showed that the EMG activation patterns for biceps and triceps did not mirror the triphasic EMG pattern observed during the real movement. Results did not support the mirroring hypothesis (e.g., the psychoneuro-muscular theory), as the pattern of increased activation during imagery did not reflect that observed during the real movement.
Marcia I. Milne, Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall, and Philip M. Wilson
Across various social cognitive theories, behavioral intention is broadly argued to be the most proximal and important predictor of behavior (Ajzen, 1991; Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell, 1998; Rogers, 1983). It seems probable that an intention to increase behavior might be differentially determined from an intention to maintain behavior. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine (1) the change in two types of behavioral intention over time and (2) the relationship between intention and the social-cognitive factor mental imagery. Behavioral intention, exercise imagery, and observed exercise behavior was measured in 68 exercise initiates participating in a 12-week exercise program. Results revealed that behavioral intention to increase exercise behavior decreased over the exercise program, whereas intentions to maintain exercise behavior increased. Appearance and technique imagery were found to be significant predictors of intention to increase behavior during the first 6 weeks of the program, and only appearance imagery predicted intention to maintain exercise behavior during the last 6 weeks. These findings suggest that the two types of behavioral intention are distinguishable and may be useful targets for exercise behavior interventions.