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Benjamin W. Infantolino, Daniel J. Gales, Samantha L. Winter and John H. Challis

The purpose of this study was to validate ultrasound muscle volume estimation in vivo. To examine validity, vastus lateralis ultrasound images were collected from cadavers before muscle dissection; after dissection, the volumes were determined by hydrostatic weighing. Seven thighs from cadaver specimens were scanned using a 7.5-MHz ultrasound probe (SSD-1000, Aloka, Japan). The perimeter of the vastus lateralis was identified in the ultrasound images and manually digitized. Volumes were then estimated using the Cavalieri principle, by measuring the image areas of sets of parallel two-dimensional slices through the muscles. The muscles were then dissected from the cadavers, and muscle volume was determined via hydrostatic weighing. There was no statistically significant difference between the ultrasound estimation of muscle volume and that estimated using hydrostatic weighing (p > 0.05). The mean percentage error between the two volume estimates was 0.4% ± 6.9. Three operators all performed four digitizations of all images from one randomly selected muscle; there was no statistical difference between operators or trials and the intraclass correlation was high (>0.8). The results of this study indicate that ultrasound is an accurate method for estimating muscle volumes in vivo.

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Gregg M. Steinberg and Becky Glass

The Five-Step Strategy (FSS) consists of (a) readying oneself, (b) imaging the desired outcome, (c) focusing on the task at hand, (d) freeing the mind, and (e) evaluating the outcome afterward. This study examined its usefulness as an instructional aid for older adults. Because some (Molander & Backman, 1989) have found that older adults have more anxiety during competitive sport experiences, another purpose was to examine whether the FSS can reduce anxiety. One group used the FSS when learning a golf putt; a second learned the putt without using the FSS. Participants putted for three 1-hr sessions once a week. Performance and anxiety were assessed before the first and after the second and third sessions. Retention scores revealed that the FSS group learned the task better than the control group did, t(27) = 6.63, p < .001. These findings suggest that the FSS might help older adults learn motor skills.

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba and Joseph M. Hart

abdominis muscle. ▸ Height times mass was the most consistent normalization variable for the lumbar multifidus muscle. Low back pain (LBP) is a condition of global significance that influences deeper musculature in the body, 1 – 19 but assessing these muscles is challenging. Ultrasound imaging (USI) is one

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Jordan A. Carlson, J. Aaron Hipp, Jacqueline Kerr, Todd S. Horowitz and David Berrigan

sources of data, including investigating device-based assessment technologies ( Fulton et al., 2016 ). Images have been captured for evaluative health purposes since at least the advent of the X-Ray in 1895 ( Spiegel, 1995 ) and the annotation of human behavior in public spaces via video since at least

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Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang

club, Real Madrid (71 million), and eight times the number of his current club, Juventus (26 million); and he has signed a one-billion dollar lifetime endorsement deal with Nike in 2016 because of his image and reach ( Badenhausen, 2016 ). Similarly, Ben Simmons (4.2 million) had more than double the

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Evan Frederick and Ann Pegoraro

National Championship banner removed ( O’Donnell, 2017a ). The university appealed these sanctions in August 2017. One month later, in September, The FBI bribery investigation emerged. Arguably, given the recent sanctions, no university involved in the FBI investigation was in greater need to enact image

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Bob Heere, Henry Wear, Adam Jones, Tim Breitbarth, Xiaoyan Xing, Juan Luis Paramio Salcines, Masayuki Yoshida and Inge Derom

brand image ( Zhang & Zhao, 2009 ), we still know relatively little about what effects these events have on the perception of the brand image among potential visitors, and especially among those who have never visited the destination before, yet might be familiar with the sport event that takes place in

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Vincenzo Ricci and Levent Özçakar

Muscle injuries are commonplace in sports medicine, and the more frequently involved muscle groups are the hamstrings, adductors, rectus femoris, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius. 1 The diagnosis is usually clinical, but diagnostic imaging modalities are often utilized to correctly

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Sandra E. Moritz, Craig R. Hall, Kathleen A. Martin and Eva Vadocz

Despite the advocacy of a confidence-enhancing function of mental imagery, the relationship between confidence and imagery has received little attention from sport researchers. The primary purpose of the present study was to identify the specific image content of confident athletes. Fifty-seven elite competitive rollerskaters completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R), the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), and the State Sport Confidence Inventory (SSCI). Results revealed that high sport-confident athletes used more mastery and arousal imagery, and had better kinesthetic and visual imagery ability than low sport-confident athletes did. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that mastery imagery accounted for the majority of variance in SSCI scores (20%). The results of this study suggest that when it comes to sport confidence, the imaged rehearsal of specific sport skills may not be as important as the imagery of sport-related mastery experiences and emotions.

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Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

building strength and flexibility through sensual dance movement ( Donaghue, Kurz, & Whitehead, 2011 ). The increased popularity and promotion of such exercise coincide with the increased emphasis on how to develop positive body image, especially among those who already possess, or may be at risk of