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Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Parisa Alaei, Soofia Naghdi, Zahra Fakhari, Shiva Komesh and Jan Dommerholt

different sports may be of interest. Fourth, another limitation of this study is that we investigated the immediate effects of DN with a short follow-up period. Further research is needed to evaluate whether the several treatment with DN enhances the positive outcomes and effects remain for longer time

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Moni Syeda, Jason Bartholomew, Shayane Santiago, Jeff Peterson, Russell T. Baker and Scott W. Cheatham

.e., tightness, rigidity, stiffness, shortness) and improving measures of ROM, muscular power, and strength in otherwise healthy adults is unclear. 2 , 3 , 6 Therefore, the purpose of our paper was to examine the immediate effects of IASTM application on ROM, muscular power, and strength of the lower extremities in

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M. Karen Ruder and Diane L. Gill

In two separate studies, members of 16 women's intramural volleyball teams (n = 94) and six women's intercollegiate volleyball teams (n = 68) completed pre-and postmatch questionnaires to determine the immediate effects of success-failure on perceptions of cohesion. A 2 × 2 (win-loss × pre-post) MANOVA on seven cohesion items yielded significant win-loss and pre-post main effects, and a significant win-loss by pre-post interaction for intramural teams. Univariate analyses indicated that winners increased and losers decreased in cohesion ratings from pre- to postmatch on three variables: level of teamwork, cohesion, and sense of belonging. Multivariate analyses yielded no significant effects for intercollegiate teams, although a univariate interaction similar to that in intramural teams was found for the cohesion variable. The results suggest that perceptions of cohesion are influenced by the immediate effects of win-loss.

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Anne Mündermann, Benno M. Nigg, R. Neil Humble and Darren J. Stefanyshyn

In order to accommodate patients to new foot orthoses over time, two steps are required: The first is to obtain a baseline reading of the immediate effects across several weeks to ensure consistency. The second step is to look at changes with progressively longer wear periods similar to what occurs in general practice. This study addressed the first step. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the baseline reading of the immediate effects of foot orthoses on comfort and lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity is consistent between days. Participants were 21 recreational runners who volunteered for the study. Three orthotic conditions (posting, custom-molding, posting and custom-molding) were compared to a control (flat) insert. Lower extremity kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected for 108 trials per participant and condition in 9 sessions for each person for running at 4 m/s. Comfort for all orthotic conditions was assessed in each session using a visual analog scale. Statistically significant session effects were detected using repeated-measures ANOVA (α = .05). Three of the 93 variables had a significant session effect. A significant interaction between orthotic condition and session was observed for 6 of the 93 variables. The results of this study showed that the effects of foot orthoses on comfort, lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity are consistent across a 3-week period when the wear time for each condition is restricted. Thus, foot orthoses lead to immediate changes in comfort, kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity with limited use. These immediate effects of foot orthoses on comfort, kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity are consistent between days.

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Alyssa Dittmer, David Tomchuk and David R. Fontenot

compared with those who did not receive the intervention. Methods Design This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate the immediate effects of the limb rotational Kinesio tape application on dynamic shoulder ROM between athletes via the YBT-UQ test. Subjects A convenience sample of 19 healthy male

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M. Spencer Cain, Kyeongtak Song, J. Troy Blackburn, Kimmery Migel and Erik A. Wikstrom

. We hypothesized that ankle joint mobilizations would improve both plantar flexor and fibularis MTS in those with CAI beyond calculated minimal detectable change scores (MDCs) for each variable. Methods Design and Participants We used a pre–post study design to investigate the immediate effects of a

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Hyun-Mu Lee, Du-Jin Park and Seong-Yeol Kim

The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in the cervical range of motion (CROM), the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (CFRR), and neck pain after dynamic neck training (DNT) combined with hold-relax technique (HRT) for young college students with video display terminal (VDT) syndrome. For this study, 15 young college students with VDT syndrome were recruited. DNT combined with HRT was applied to all participants in a sitting position for 15 min. Postintervention, the CROM and the CFRR were significantly higher than preintervention, and neck pain had significantly decreased. DNT combined with HRT showed immediate effects on the CROM, the CFRR, and neck pain in young college students with VDT syndrome.

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Jennifer E. Meyer, Matthew J. Rivera and Cameron J. Powden

been found in several studies, which evaluated the immediate effects of MWM on DFROM. 12 , 15 , 17 , 20 Specifically, Marrón-Gómez et al 15 found improvements in DFROM following a single set of MWMs. An ES of 0.46 was identified following this single set, which is the same as our findings (ES = 0

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Athanasios Trampas, Anastasia Mpeneka, Vivian Malliou, George Godolias and Periklis Vlachakis

Context:

Previous studies showed improved dynamic-balance (DB) performance after core-stability (CS) exercises in populations with chronic low back pain. Although clinical massage plus exercise is likely to better enhance analgesia than exercise alone, its efficacy on balance remains unclear.

Objective:

To evaluate the immediate effects of CS exercises plus myofascial trigger-point (MTrP) therapy in comparison with CS exercises alone on DB performance, pressure-pain threshold (PPT), and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs in patients with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome.

Design:

Randomized, assessor-blind, test–retest.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Patients:

10 physically active adults (5 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Single-leg DB performance and side-to-side ratios in 2 planes of motion (frontal, sagittal), as well as PPT and cross-sectional area of active MTrPs, were measured using stabilometry, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound scanning, respectively.

Interventions:

The 1st group performed CS exercises alone, whereas the same exercise program was applied in the 2nd group plus cross-fiber friction on active MTrPs (3.5 min/MTrP).

Results:

Within-group statistically and clinically significant differences were observed only for group II in PPT. However, group I also exhibited a large effect size with clinically significant changes from baseline on this outcome. Furthermore, patients in group II clinically improved their balance ratios and differed from group I at posttest in sagittal-plane DB performance of the painful side.

Conclusion:

CS exercises immediately increase the PPT of active MTrPs in physically active adults with clinical instability of the lumbar spine and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. When MTrP therapy is added, side-to-side asymmetries in DB are minimized.

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Matthew Harkey, Michelle McLeod, Ashley Van Scoit, Masafumi Terada, Michael Tevald, Phillip Gribble and Brian Pietrosimone

Context:

Altered neuromuscular function and decreased dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) have been observed in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Joint mobilizations are indicated for restoring DFROM and dynamic postural control, yet it remains unknown if a mobilization can alter neuromuscular excitability in muscles surrounding the ankle.

Objective:

To determine the immediate effects of a Maitland grade III anterior-to-posterior joint mobilization on spinal-reflex and corticospinal excitability in the fibularis longus (FL) and soleus (SOL), DFROM, and dynamic postural control.

Design:

Single-blinded randomized control trial.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Patients:

30 patients with CAI randomized into a mobilization (n = 15) or control (n = 15) group.

Intervention:

Maitland grade III anterior-to-posterior joint mobilization.

Main Outcome Measures:

Spinal-reflex excitability was measured with the Hoffmann reflex, while corticospinal excitability was evaluated with transcranial magnetic stimulation. DFROM was measured seated with the knee extended, and dynamic postural control was quantified with the Star Excursion Balance Test. Separate 2 × 2 repeated-measures ANOVAs were performed for each outcome measure. Dependent t tests were used to evaluate individual differences within groups in the presence of significance.

Results:

Spinal-reflex and corticospinal excitability of the SOL and FL were not altered in the mobilization or control group (P > .05). DFROM increased immediately after the mobilization (P = .05) but not in the control group, while dynamic postural control was unchanged in both groups (P > .05).

Conclusion:

A single joint-mobilization treatment was efficacious at restoring DFROM in participants with CAI; however, excitability of spinal reflex and corticospinal pathways at the ankle and dynamic postural control were unaffected.