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Sam Coad, Bon Gray, George Wehbe and Christopher McLellan

Purpose:

To examine the response or pre- and postmatch salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) to Australian Football League (AFL) match play and investigate the acute and cumulative influence of player workload and postmatch [s-IgA] after repeated participation in AFL match play.

Methods:

Eleven elite AFL athletes (21.8 ± 2.4 y, 186.9 ± 7.9 cm, 87.4 ± 7.5 kg) were monitored throughout 3 matches during the preseason that were separated by 7 d. Saliva samples were collected across each AFL match at 24 h and 1 h prematch and 1, 12, 36, and 60 h postmatch to determine [s-IgA]. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to determine total player workload during match play. Hypothesis testing was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load using a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

Player load during match 3 (1266 ± 124.6 AU) was significantly (P < .01) greater than in match 1 (1096 ± 115.1 AU) and match 2 (1082 ± 90.4 AU). Across match 3, [s-IgA] was significantly (P < .01) suppressed at 2 postmatch measures (12 and 36 h) compared with prematch measures (24 and 1 h), which coincided with significantly (P < .01) elevated player load.

Conclusion:

The findings indicate that an increase in player load during AFL preseason match play resulted in compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function. Longitudinal assessment of AFL-match player load and mucosal immunological function across the first 60 h of recovery may augment monitoring and preparedness strategies for athletes.

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Bruno P. Melo, Débora A. Guariglia, Rafael E. Pedro, Dennis A. Bertolini, Solange de Paula Ramos, Sidney B. Peres and Solange M. Franzói de Moraes

cortisol and increase testosterone levels, promoting a positive anabolic status and reduce the risk of inflammatory reactions over time in this population. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to verify the acute effects of combined exercise about cortisol, testosterone, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

commonly upper respiratory tract illness (URI) 3 which can directly impair performance or limit training availability. 2 A key antibody in host defense is salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The sIgA has been acknowledged as the first line of defense in mucosal immunity. 4 Several authors have

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Ryland Morgans, Adam Owen, Dominic Doran, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

Purpose:

To monitor resting salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in international soccer players during the short-term training period that precedes international match play.

Methods:

In a repeated-measure design, saliva samples were obtained from 13 outfield soccer players who participated in the training camps preceding 7 games (5 home and 2 away) of the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign. Samples were obtained daily for 4 d preceding each game (and analyzed for SIgA using the IPRO oral-fluid-collection system) at match day minus 1 (MD-1), minus 2 (MD-2), minus 3 (MD-3), and minus 4 (MD-4).

Results:

SIgA displayed a progressive decline (P = .01) during the 4-d training period (MD-4, 365 ± 127 μg/mL; MD-3, 348 ± 154 μg/mL; MD-2, 290 ± 138 μg/mL; MD-1, 256 ± 90 μg/mL) such that MD-1 values were significantly lower (P = .01) than both MD-4 and MD-3. The 95% confidence intervals for the differences between MD-1 and MD-4 were –191 to –26 and between MD-1 and MD-3 were –155 to –28.

Conclusions:

Data demonstrate that a short-term soccer-training camp in preparation for international competition induces detectable perturbations to mucosal immunity. Future studies should monitor SIgA (as a practical and noninvasive measure of immunity) alongside internal and external measures of training load in an attempt to strategically individualize training and nutritional strategies that may support optimal preparation for high-level competition.

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Christof A. Leicht, Nicolette C. Bishop, Thomas A.W. Paulson, Katy E. Griggs and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Purpose:

Altered autonomic innervation in tetraplegic individuals has been shown to depress certain immune parameters at rest and alter exercise-related salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses. The purpose of this study was to examine resting sIgA responses as a function of training load and episodes of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in elite tetraplegic athletes.

Methods:

Resting saliva samples were obtained from 14 tetraplegic athletes at 12 predefined time points over 5 months and analyzed for sIgA. Occurrence of self-reported URS and training load was recorded throughout the study’s duration. Regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between sIgA responses and training load. Furthermore, the relationships between sIgA responses and URS occurrence were examined.

Results:

sIgA secretion rate was negatively correlated with training load (P = .04), which only accounted for 8% of the variance. No significant relationships were found between sIgA responses and subsequent URS occurrence. Finally, sIgA responses did not differ between athletes with and without recorded URS during the study period.

Conclusions:

In line with findings in ablebodied athletes, negative relationships between sIgA secretion rate and training load were found in tetraplegic athletes. This may explain some of the higher infection risk in wheelchair athletes with a high training load, which has been previously observed in paraplegic athletes. However, the nonsignificant relationship between sIgA responses and URS occurrence brings into question the use of sIgA as a prognostic tool for the early detection of URS episodes in the studied population.

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Yoonyoung Hwang, Jonghoon Park and Kiwon Lim

We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

have supported this, displaying increases in salivary cortisol (sC) 4 , 7 or decreases in salivary testosterone (sT), 1 , 8 as a result of IT. In addition, Coutts et al 9 proposed that salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) may also be a sensitive marker in response to IT. This is due to

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

previously been validated in swimmers. 8 Salivary biomarkers are easily accessible and noninvasive measures which can be quantified quickly and repeatedly. 9 Saliva contains both immunity and stress biomarkers, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol, all of which have been shown

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

, concern centers on transient immunodepression associated with endurance exercise, which might otherwise be attenuated by CHO ingestion. Current research shows that low or declining levels of salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) are associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory illness ( Bishop

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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) provides a noninvasive biological marker that may be useful to monitor football players responses to training 1 , 2 and to identify players at risk of upper respiratory tract (URT) infection. 3 Indeed, low levels of salivary IgA over a training period