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Sam Coad, Bon Gray and Christopher McLellan

Purpose:

To assess match-to-match variations in salivary immunoglobulin A concentration ([s-IgA]) measured at 36 h postmatch throughout an Australian Football League (AFL) premiership season and to assess the trends between 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] and match-play exercise workloads throughout the same season.

Methods:

Eighteen elite male AFL athletes (24 ± 4.2 y, 187.0 ± 7.1 cm, 87.0 ± 7.6 kg) were monitored on a weekly basis to determine total match-play exercise workloads and 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] throughout 16 consecutive matches in an AFL premiership season. Global positioning systems (GPS) with integrated triaxial accelerometers were used to measure exercise workloads (PlayerLoad) during each AFL match. A linear mixed-model analyses was conducted for time-dependent changes in [s-IgA] and player load.

Results:

A significant main effect was found for longitudinal postmatch [s-IgA] data (F 16,240 = 3.78, P < .01) and PlayerLoad data (F 16,66 = 1.98, P = .03). For all matches after and including match 7, a substantial suppression trend in [s-IgA] 36-h-postmatch values was found compared with preseason baseline [s-IgA].

Conclusion:

The current study provides novel data regarding longitudinal trends in 36-h-postmatch [s-IgA] for AFL athletes. Results demonstrate that weekly in-season AFL match-play exercise workloads may result in delayed mucosal immunological recovery beyond 36 h postmatch. The inclusion of individual athlete-monitoring strategies of [s-IgA] may be advantageous in the detection of compromised postmatch mucosal immunological function for AFL athletes.

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Hun-young Park, Sang-seok Nam, Hirofumi Tanaka and Dong-jun Lee

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to investigate hemodynamic, hematological, and immunological responses to prolonged submaximal cycle ergometer exercise at a simulated altitude of 3000 m in pubescent girls.

Methods:

Ten girls, 12.8 ± 1.0 years old, exercised on a cycle ergometer for 60 min at a work rate corresponding to 50% maximal oxygen consumption measured at sea level, under two environmental conditions; sea level (normoxia) and a simulated 3000 m altitude (normobaric hypoxia).

Results:

There were no significant differences in tidal volume, ventilation, oxygen consumption, cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate between the two exercise conditions. However, reticulocyte, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol concentrations increased significantly from pre- to postexercise in the hypoxic environment. Leukocyte and T-cell count increased and B-cell count decreased after exercise under both conditions. There were no significant changes in natural killer cell count.

Conclusion:

Our simulated hypoxic environment provided a mild environmental stressor that did not impose a heavy burden on the cardiovascular, hematological, or immunological functions during submaximal exercise in pubescent girls.

Open access

Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

activities ( 83 ), and increases muscle blood flow regulation and distribution ( 38 ). In other words, exercise enhances every component of the O 2 transport system except the lungs ( 164 ). Immunology and Exercise During Youth Experts: Shlomit Radom-Aizik and Nitzan Dror, University of California Irvine

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Brian W. Timmons

Despite significant advances in exercise immunology over the last two decades, our understanding of immune responses to exercise in children remains sparse. This review outlines and discusses commonly reported aspects of the immune response to exercise, with emphasis on child-adult differences. Compared with adults, children generally experience smaller perturbations to the immune system (e.g., NK cells and IL-6) in response to exercise of the same duration and intensity. Children also demonstrate a faster recovery of immune components (e.g., neutrophil and IL-6) after exercise. The health and clinical relevance of exercise-induced changes in a child’s immune system remain to be determined.

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Jeffrey A. Woods and Brandt D. Pence

Exercise immunology is a relatively new discipline in the exercise sciences that seeks to understand how exercise affects the immune system and susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. This brief review will focus on three major observations that have driven the field to date including: (1) acute exercise-induced leukocytosis, (2) the observation that intense, prolonged exercise results in upper respiratory tract symptoms, and (3) the paradoxical effect of acute and chronic exercise on inflammation. This framework will be used to examine the mechanisms and implications behind these seminal observations. Data generally support the conclusion that moderate intensity exercise enhances immune function, whereas prolonged, intense exercise diminishes immune function.

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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

Purpose: To examine a diagnosis of unexplained underperformance syndrome (UUPS, or overtraining syndrome) in an international rower describing a full recovery and return to elite competition the same year. Methods: On diagnosis and 4 and 14 mo postdiagnosis, detailed assessments including physiological, nutritional, and biomarkers were made. Results: Clinical examination and laboratory results for hematology, biochemistry, thyroid function, immunology, vitamins, and minerals were unremarkable and did not explain the presentation and diagnosis. Redox biomarkers including hydroperoxides, plasma antioxidant capacity, red blood cell glutathione, superoxide dismutase, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol), and carotenoids (lutein, α-carotene, β-carotene) provided evidence of altered redox homeostasis. The recovery strategy began with 12 d of training abstinence and nutritional interventions, followed by 6 wk of modified training. At 4 mo postintervention, performance had recovered strongly, resulting in the athlete’s becoming European champion that same year. Further improvements in physiological and performance indices were observed at 14 mo postintervention. Physiologically relevant increases in concentrations of carotenoids were achieved at each postintervention time point, exceeding the reported critical-difference values. Conclusions: Increasing athlete phytonutrient intake may enhance recovery and tolerance of training and environmental stressors, reducing the risk of unexplained UUPS. Alterations in redox homeostasis should be considered as part of the medical management in UUPS. This is the first reported case study of an elite athlete with alterations in redox homeostasis in conjunction with a diagnosis of UUPS.

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

. Journal of Immunology, 168 ( 7 ), 3195 – 3204 . doi:10.4049/jimmunol.168.7.3195 10.4049/jimmunol.168.7.3195 Eberth , J. , & Sedlmeier , P. ( 2012 ). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis . Mindfulness, 3 ( 3 ), 174 – 189 . doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0101-x 10.1007/s12671

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

et al., 2018b ). Small, immune-related proteins (e.g., cytokines) are involved with pathogen defense and immune cell chemotaxis and locomotion. The most studied cytokine in exercise immunology is Interleukin-6, which increases markedly after strenuous exercise ( Febbraio & Pedersen, 2002 ). Other

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Takeshi Kokubo, Yuta Komano, Ryohei Tsuji, Daisuke Fujiwara, Toshio Fujii and Osamu Kanauchi

immune system interactions in infectious diseases, immunopathology, and cancer . Frontiers in Immunology, 9 , 1830 . PubMed ID: 30158926 doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01830 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01830 Makelä , M.J. , Puhakka , T. , Ruuskanen , O. , Leinonen , M. , Saikku , P. , Kimpimäki , M

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

dysregulation . Cell Immunology, 273 , 124 – 132 . doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.01.001 10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.01.001 Bartolomei , S. , Sadres , E. , Church , D.D. , Arroyo , E. , Gordon , J.A. , III , Varanoske , A.N. , … Hoffman , J.R. ( 2017 ). Comparison of the recovery response from high