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Shaun O’Leary, Carlijn Hoogma, Øystein Molland Solberg, Sara Sundberg, Ashley Pedler, and Luke Van Wyk

Impaired muscle function is thought to contribute to the high prevalence 1 and recurrence 2 of idiopathic neck pain. 3 Several studies have shown deficits in maximal strength 4 – 10 and endurance 4 , 11 – 13 of the cervical muscles in individuals with idiopathic neck pain when compared with

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Scott J. Strath, Taylor W. Rowley, Chi C. Cho, Allison Hyngstrom, Ann M. Swartz, Kevin G. Keenan, Julian Martinez, and John W. Staudenmayer

were individuals who were wheelchair reliant or assistive device reliant, and those with uncontrolled hypertension with a blood pressure greater than 160/100 mmHg at the initial visit, who had a known history of cognitive impairment inability to follow study procedures, and had a history of amputation

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Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Tomás Urbán, and Raúl Reina

. Classification based on the impairments and sport classes (FT) of footballers with CP is a key point in this population, among other para-sports. 10 Footballers with CP (FT5–FT8) are eligible to compete in national and international competitions. After the 2016 Rio Paralympic Games, each team must field at

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

Parasport 1 has grown significantly over the past 60 years, with the Paralympic Games becoming the second largest multisport event on Earth ( Steadward & Peterson, 1997 ). To gain access to competitive parasport, athletes with physical, sensory, and intellectual impairment are classified

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, and Robert W. Motl

disabilities categorically based on medical diagnoses (e.g., multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy). The functional model emphasizes functional limitations arising from impairments and focuses on improving functioning with rehabilitation. Social models view disability not as an attribute of the person, but as an

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, and Luciano Sales Prado

); however, its effects on physical performance have only recently been investigated. The empirical evidence gathered to date suggests that mental fatigue does not impair short-duration activities requiring all-out strategies ( 18 ). However, mental fatigue has been shown to affect athletic performance in

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Megan J. Huisingh-Scheetz, Li Li, Kristen E. Wroblewski, L. Philip Schumm, Martha K. McClintock, and Jayant M. Pinto

Ninety-four percentage of adults >57 years have at least one sensory deficit, making the burden of sensory impairment enormous ( Correia et al., 2016 ; Crews & Campbell, 2004 ; Murphy et al., 2002 ; Welge-Lüssen, 2009 ; Wickremaratchi & Llewelyn, 2006 ). Multisensory loss greatly reduces health

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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman, and Lilian Lechner

to 19% of the younger adults ( WHO, 2010b ). Among specific subpopulations of older adults, this lack of PA is even more prevalent, such as single older adults ( Masi, Chen, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2011 ; Toepoel, 2013 ) and adults with physical impairments ( WHO, 2011 ). Several studies have shown

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Nima Dehghansai, Veronica Allan, Ross A. Pinder, and Joe Baker

from the variations among PS athletes’ development ( Allan et al., 2018 ). For example, findings from recent studies suggest athletes with impairments acquired early in their lives (i.e., congenital or acquired during preadolescence) have different sporting trajectories to athletes with impairments

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors

Para Va'a is a canoeing sport performed in a Polynesian outrigger canoe, propelled by a single-blade paddle on flat or open water, by athletes with physical impairments. Para Va'a makes its debut as a Paralympic sport at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games after the International Paralympic Committee