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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit, and Morgan Anderson

acceleration or a whip-lash mechanism (i.e., acceleration/deceleration) of the head ( McCrory et al., 2017 ). The impact causes shearing and stretching injuries to axons that impair neuronal function, resulting in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate), which creates an ionic imbalance

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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith, and Luciano Sales Prado

); however, its effects on physical performance have only recently been investigated. The empirical evidence gathered to date suggests that mental fatigue does not impair short-duration activities requiring all-out strategies ( 18 ). However, mental fatigue has been shown to affect athletic performance in

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Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman, and Lilian Lechner

to 19% of the younger adults ( WHO, 2010b ). Among specific subpopulations of older adults, this lack of PA is even more prevalent, such as single older adults ( Masi, Chen, Hawkley, & Cacioppo, 2011 ; Toepoel, 2013 ) and adults with physical impairments ( WHO, 2011 ). Several studies have shown

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo, and Hiroaki Masaki

impaired the recollection processing, whereas the familiarity process remained unaffected. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the hippocampus selectively supports the recollection process, whereas adjacent cortex in the medial temporal lobe supports the familiarity process ( Cansino et al., 2002

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

, DeMartelaer, Samaey, & Andries, 2008 ), which was the original intent of its developers ( Ulrich, 1985 , 2000 ). Given the frequency and severity of gross motor delays for individuals with visual impairments ( Haegele, Brian, & Goodway, 2015 ; Haibach, Wagner, & Lieberman, 2014 ; Houwen, Hartman

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Luke Hogarth, Brendan Burkett, Peter Van de Vliet, and Carl Payton

In Para swimming, a functional classification system has been used to structure competition since the 1992 Barcelona Paralympics. 1 Swimmers with physical, visual, and intellectual impairments compete in separate classes based on the estimated impact of their impairment on swim performance

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Barry S. Mason, Viola C. Altmann, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paralympic sports, a classification system exists in order to minimize the impact of impairment on the outcomes of competition. 2 Classification in WR is largely dependent on the physical assessment of trunk and arm function. Point scores between 0 and 1.5 are awarded to represent trunk function. Both arms

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Ryan McCann, Kyle Kosik, Masafumi Terada, and Phillip Gribble

Key Points • Patients with a lateral ankle sprain often sustain recurrent injuries after return to play. • Impairments and activity limitation persist beyond return to play from a lateral ankle sprain. • It remains unknown how these outcomes contribute to recurrent lateral ankle sprains. Athletic

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T.N. Kirk, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu

., 2013 ; Vallance et al., 2011 ; Zhai et al., 2015 ) and anxiety (e.g.,  Goodwin, 2003 ; Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Despite this, reports indicate that the majority of adults with visual impairments do not typically meet physical activity guidelines ( Carroll et al., 2014 ; Holbrook et al., 2009

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

impairments tend to be less physically active than their sighted peers ( Haegele & Porretta, 2015 ) as well as peers with other physical and sensory disabilities ( Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000 ). Researchers have identified several barriers that can limit active participation in physical activities, including in