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Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson

The researchers explore consumers’ emotional responses toward athlete brands by developing the associative evaluation–emotional appraisal–intention (AEI) model. The AEI postulates that unconscious (implicit attitudes) and conscious (explicit affective attitudes) levels of emotional responses systematically flow following assessments of perceived fit in athlete endorsements. Implicit attitudes were measured through the implicit association test, whereas pleasure, arousal, and pride captured explicit affective attitudes. Contrary to dominant beliefs about successful athlete endorsements, findings from a lab experiment indicate that low perceived fit affected implicit attitudes, which in turn affected arousal for consumers with high involvement. Pleasure, arousal, and pride were interrelated and systematically determined behavioral intentions of viewership and online friendship with athletes. Studies investigating athlete brands and endorsement success should consider the influence of both implicit and explicit attitudes on fan behavior. Managers should strategically utilize both low and high fit endorsements to facilitate emotional experiences and optimize desired consumption behavior.

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

items were those used in traditional Implicit Association Test (IAT) research ( Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ). The SC-IAT is a modification of the original IAT ( Greenwald et al., 1998 ). Unlike the original IAT, participants are not forced to make comparisons between complementary pair words (e

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George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite

living in the state. Implicit bias We assessed ImplicitBias through the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998 ). As Greenwald, Poehlman, Uhmann, and Banaji ( 2009 ) explained, “The IAT assesses strengths of associations between concepts by observing response latencies in

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Nicole T. Gabana, Brandon T. Cooper and Martin A. Swanbrow Becker

differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test (IAT) . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 ( 6 ), 1464 – 1480 . PubMed ID: 9654756 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464 Greenwald , A.G. , Nosek , B.A. , & Banaji , M.R. ( 2003 ). Understanding and using the implicit

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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue

; Inoue et al., 2015 ). Third, we attempt to improve and diversify the existing methods in sport management by employing the implicit association test (IAT) as a measurement tool of iTeam ID. IAT is a new class of response-time-based measurement designed to overcome the drawbacks of survey-based self

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Ben Larkin, Brendan Dwyer and Chad Goebert

such, we have proposed a mixed-method approach featuring the implicit association test (IAT) and subsequent follow-up semistructured interviews to investigate the relationship between fantasy sport participation and the dehumanization of NFL players, as well as to explore the implications of this

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

Banse ( 2011 ); Gawronski and De Houwer ( 2014 ); Gawronski and Hahn ( 2018 ); Spruyt, Gast, and Moors ( 2011 ); and Wentura and Degner ( 2010 ). Researchers interested in specific measures should consult technical resources specific to each task, namely the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald