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Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue

; Inoue et al., 2015 ). Third, we attempt to improve and diversify the existing methods in sport management by employing the implicit association test (IAT) as a measurement tool of iTeam ID. IAT is a new class of response-time-based measurement designed to overcome the drawbacks of survey-based self

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Philip Furley, Matt Dicks, and Daniel Memmert

In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

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Ben Larkin, Brendan Dwyer, and Chad Goebert

such, we have proposed a mixed-method approach featuring the implicit association test (IAT) and subsequent follow-up semistructured interviews to investigate the relationship between fantasy sport participation and the dehumanization of NFL players, as well as to explore the implications of this

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Gerson Daniel de Oliveira Calado, Andressa de Oliveira Araújo, Gledson Tavares Amorim Oliveira, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Amanda L. Rebar, Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado, and Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy

). These implicit processes may not be accessible via self-reflection, thus, they are typically assessed using implicit associations measures ( St Quinton & Brunton, 2017 ; Strack & Deutsch, 2004 ). In this sense, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is one of these measures. It is a computer-based test

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Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry

using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197 – 216 . 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197 Hannan , T.E. , Moffitt , R.L. , Neumann , D.L. , & Kemps , E. ( 2019 ). Implicit approach–avoidance associations predict leisure

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Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, and Brad D. Carlson

. Journal of Sport Management, 31 , 345 – 359 . doi:10.1123/jsm.2016-0157 10.1123/jsm.2016-0157 Gibson , B. ( 2008 ). Can evaluative conditioning change attitudes toward mature brands? New evidence from the implicit association test . Journal of Consumer Research, 35 , 178 – 188 . doi:10

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Sydney Klein, Colin A. Zestcott, and Alaina Brenick

end of the study, participants were debriefed and compensated $1.50 for their participation based on typical rates of compensation for Amazon mTurk. Measures Implicit Association Test Participants completed an adapted version of the implicit association test (IAT) that measured implicit race and dance

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Ralf Brand and Franziska Antoniewicz

Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants’ automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one’s negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

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Carly Albaum, Annie Mills, Diane Morin, and Jonathan A. Weiss

toward minority groups have typically been assessed using implicit association tests (IATs) that aim to elucidate potential underlying biases ( Greenwald et al., 1998 ). Meta-analytic findings indicate a significant range in the degree of association, from nonexistent to moderately positive, between one

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

relaxation period, participants completed a computerized implicit attitudes task, the personalized Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). Participants then completed a packet of questionnaires including demographic information, PA level, effortful control, and explicit attitudes. Self