, Cullen, Nicklas, Thompson, & Baranowski, 2003 ; Callahan, 2013 ; Ogden, Karim, Choudry, & Brown, 2007 ). Accordingly, consideration of other pathways through which attitudes influence exercise initiation and adherence is necessary. Implicit attitudes may play a role in whether and for how long
Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, and Brad D. Carlson
different types of attitudes: implicit attitudes formed through implicit evaluations and explicit attitudes formed through propositional reasoning ( Greenwald & Banaji, 2017 ). In particular, unconscious evaluations are useful to identify and track complex association networks stored in consumers’ memory
; Wenger & Brown, 2014 ), namely implicit attitudes ( Greenwald & Banaji, 1995 ). This recent application of implicit attitudes in sport studies stems from the notion that associative evaluations, as a fundamental source, could account for unexplained variances in sport consumer behavior ( Chang et al., in
Donald R. Marks
Despite valuable research regarding multicultural encounters in sport psychology settings, the mechanisms by which culture operates, including the ways that it is transmitted and learned, and the specific processes though which it exerts influence upon behavior, remain poorly understood. Research also has not addressed how a dimension of experience that is so fundamental could remain so transparent and reside so consistently outside the awareness of researchers, clinicians, and clients. Recent contributions to cultural psychology using an interactivist model provide a theoretical perspective through which clinical sport psychologists could conceptualize these challenging issues and address the complex behaviors observed in cross-cultural contexts. Interactivism offers a framework for investigating the internally inconsistent “polyphonic,” or multivoiced, nature of the self. In doing so, it highlights the need for investigative methods that can account for frequent discrepancies between implicit attitudes and observed behaviors, on one hand, and explicit attitudes and behaviors as endorsed on self-report measures, on the other.
Amanda L. Hyde, Steriani Elavsky, Shawna E. Doerksen, and David E. Conroy
Accumulating research indicates that physical activity is motivated by automatic evaluations of physical activity. Little is known about the stability of automatic evaluations or how their dynamics impact physical activity. We tested the measurement invariance and stability of university students’ (N = 164) automatic evaluations of physical activity. In addition, multiple regression and structural equation models with latent interaction variables were used to investigate how changes in automatic evaluations related to change in self-reported physical activity and differences in the level of directly measured physical activity. It was revealed that automatic evaluations had strict measurement invariance and that automatic evaluations have both stable and unstable components. People whose unfavorable automatic evaluations became more favorable over the week showed a larger increase in self-reported physical activity from the previous week than did people whose automatic evaluations remained unfavorable. These results indicated that the dynamics of automatic evaluations and physical activity can be intertwined.
Carly Albaum, Annie Mills, Diane Morin, and Jonathan A. Weiss
that affective and behavioral components uniquely contribute to prejudice toward marginalized groups ( Haddock et al., 1993 ). In contrast, implicit attitudes occur automatically, without intention, and beyond conscious awareness ( Greenwald et al., 1998 ; Wilson & Scior, 2015 ). Implicit attitudes
Kate Ferrara, Jan Burns, and Hayley Mills
Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public’s attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.
Sean R. Locke and Tanya R. Berry
high ECEs; whereas we might expect a different relationship—smaller or no relationship—for those with low ECEs who may focus both on the positive and negative aspects of exercise. This supposition aligns with previous research demonstrating that executive function and implicit attitudes interacted to
Gerson Daniel de Oliveira Calado, Andressa de Oliveira Araújo, Gledson Tavares Amorim Oliveira, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Amanda L. Rebar, Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado, and Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy
. , Bernard , P. , Chamberland , P.E. , & Rebar , A. ( 2019 ). The association between implicit attitudes toward physical activity and physical activity behaviour: A systematic review and correlational meta-analysis . Health Psychology Review, 13 ( 3 ), 248 – 276 . https://doi.org/10
Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis
common use of the term attitude in social cognitive psychology, this distinction between the origins of favorability (or unfavorability) is absent, the term attitude (even implicit attitude ) is not used here, to avoid possible confusion. As explained next, in our use, a mental process can be