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Mark Otten

Choking research in sport has suggested that an athlete's tendency to choke, versus give a better than usual (i.e., “clutch”) performance depends on his or her personality, as well as on situational influences, such as a reliance on explicit (versus implicit) knowledge when pressured. The current study integrated these hypotheses and tested a structural equation model (SEM) to predict sport performance under pressure. Two hundred and one participants attempted two sets of 15 basketball free throws, and were videotaped during their second set of shots as a manipulation of pressure. Results of the model suggest that “reinvesting” attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus; self-focus, then, did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings of self-reported “perceived control” did help performance. Implications for measurement of these constructs, and their relationships with performance, are discussed.

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal, and David J. Hancock

in rugby union referees . The Sport Psychologist, 19 , 131 – 147 . doi:10.1123/tsp.19.2.131 10.1123/tsp.19.2.131 Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British

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Kevin A. Becker, Ayana F. Georges, and Christopher A. Aiken

instruction preferences . International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7 ( 4 ), 488 – 502 . doi:10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671921 10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671921 Masters , R.S. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex

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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson, and Paul Davis

.1016/0191-8869(95)00202-2 Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British Journal of Psychology, 83 , 343 – 358 . doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x Mateo , M

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Amy Price, Dave Collins, John Stoszkowski, and Shane Pill

, closing the gap at Key Stage 3 . The Curriculum Journal, 27 ( 2 ), 246 – 271 . 10.1080/09585176.2015.1137778 Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, nerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British Journal of

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Rob Gray, Anders Orn, and Tim Woodman

). Conscious monitoring and control (reinvestment) in surgical performance under pressure . Surgical Endoscopy , 26 , 2423 – 2429 . doi: 10.1007/s00464-012-2193-8 10.1007/s00464-012-2193-8 Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know-how — The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the

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Reynold W.L. Lee, Andy C.Y. Tse, and Thomson W.L. Wong

. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British Journal of Psychology, 83 ( 3 ), 343 – 358 . doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x 10.1111/j

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp, and Bert Steenbergen

. Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British Journal of Psychology, 83 ( 3 ), 343 – 358 . doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x

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Jence A. Rhoads, Marcos Daou, Keith R. Lohse, and Matthew W. Miller

.1123/jmld.2015-0010 10.1123/jmld.2015-0010 Masters , R.S.W. ( 1992 ). Knowledge nerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure . British Journal of Psychology, 83 , 343 – 358 . doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02446.x. 10

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Paul Garner, Jennifer Turnnidge, Will Roberts, and Jean Côté

“skills are intentional actions” where interpersonal interactions are guided by explicit knowledge and clearly articulated intention. As such, intuitive behavior, governed by implicit knowledge, may contribute to a level of expertise, but without the conscious intention to guide CEs’ behaviors, the